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DAT1, DRD4, and DRD5 polymorphisms are not associated with ADHD in Dutch families

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Abstract

Recent meta-analyses have indicated that the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine receptor genes D4 (DRD4) and D5 (DRD5) are associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although single studies frequently failed to show significant association. In a family-based sample of 236 Dutch children with ADHD, we have investigated the previously described variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms and two additional microsatellites at the DAT1 and DRD4 loci. DRD5 was investigated using the microsatellite that was previously found to be associated. Transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs) did not show preferential transmission of alleles or two-marker haplotypes to affected offspring. These data suggest that DAT1, DRD4, and DRD5 do not contribute substantially to ADHD in the Dutch population. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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