Reelin is a glycoprotein involved in the migration and positioning of proliferating neurons and synaptic connectivity during neurodevelopment. It may also modulate neuronal plasticity throughout life. Therefore, the reelin gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia. We examined the association of the CGG repeat polymorphism in the 5′-untranslated region of the reelin gene with schizophrenia in 266 unrelated French Caucasian patients, 156 of their parents, and 103 controls. We found no difference in the allele distribution between patients and controls although there was a significant higher prevalence of the genotype 8-8 in controls (CLUMP T3: χ2 = 6.3, P = 0.035). There was no significant transmission disequilibrium in intrafamilial analysis. To refine our phenotypic characterization and in accordance with converging evidence suggesting that treatment resistance is associated with indices of abnormal neurodevelopment, we studied the association between reelin gene polymorphism and response to antipsychotics. Patients who responded to antipsychotics had a higher frequency of both the (CGG)10 allele and (CGG)10-containing genotypes (P = 0.02; P = 0.006, respectively), with an odd ratio for genotypes of 4.2 (CI = [1.4;12.4]). Our results weakly support an association of reelin gene variants with schizophrenia as a whole, yet suggest that reelin could be associated with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.