The 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype at the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) increases the risk for depression in a large cohort of primary care attendees: The PREDICT-gene study

Authors

  • Jorge A. Cervilla,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    2. Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    • Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Avenida de Madrid 11, 18012 Granada, Spain.
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  • Margarita Rivera,

    1. Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
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  • Esther Molina,

    1. Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
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  • Francisco Torres-González,

    1. Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
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  • Juan A. Bellón,

    1. Centro de Atención Primaria “El Palo”, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Universidad de Malága, Málaga, Spain
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  • Berta Moreno,

    1. Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    2. Fundación IMABIS, Málaga, Spain
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  • Juan de Dios Luna,

    1. Departamento de Bioestadística, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
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  • José A. Lorente,

    1. Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
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  • Yolanda de Diego-Otero,

    1. Fundación IMABIS, Málaga, Spain
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  • Michael King,

    1. Academic Department of Psychiatry, University College and Royal Free School of Medicine, London, UK
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  • Irwin Nazareth,

    1. Department of Primary Care & Population Sciences, UCL & MRC General Practice Research Framework, London, UK
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  • Blanca Gutiérrez

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Medicina Legal, Toxicología y Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    2. Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    • Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Avenida de Madrid 11, 18012 Granada, Spain.
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  • Please cite this article as follows: Cervilla JA, Rivera M, Molina E, Torres-González F, Bellón JA, Moreno B, de Dios Luna J, Lorente JA, de Diego-Otero Y, King M, Nazareth I, Gutierrez B. 2006. The 5-HTTLPR s/s Genotype at the Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) Increases the Risk for Depression in a Large Cohort of Primary Care Attendees: The PREDICT-Gene Study. Am J Med Genet Part B 141B:912–917.

  • Miguel Xavier, Igor Slav, Heidi-Ingrid Maaros, Jan Neelman, Francisco Torres-Gonzalez, Irwin Nazareth and Michael King.

Abstract

Previous reports and meta-analyses have yielded inconclusive results as to whether the s/s genotype at the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism confers increased risk for depression. We tested the association between s/s genotype and depression in a large cohort (n = 737) of Spanish primary care consecutive attendees participating in a European study on predictors for depression in primary care (PREDICT study). Participants were administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) depression subscale allowing diagnoses using ICD-10 criteria for depressive episodes. Participants were genotyped to establish 5HTTLPR genotype. Both univariable and multivariable associations between the s/s genotype and depression were tested twice using two different depressive outcomes (ICD-10 depressive episode and ICD-10 severe depressive episode). We found an association between the s/s genotype and both depressive outcomes that was independent of age, sex, family history of psychological problems among first degree relatives and presence of comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. When comparing s/s homozygous versus the rest, the adjusted odds ratio for any ICD-10 depressive episode and for severe ICD-10 depressive episode were 1.50 (95% CI: 1.0–2.2; P = 0.045) and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.1–2.8; P = 0.016), respectively. The association was significantly stronger with increasing severity of depression (χ2 for linear association=6.1; P = 0.013) suggesting a dose-dependent relationship. Our results are consistent with previous reports suggesting a small but independent effect by the s/s 5-HTTLPR genotype increasing the risk for depression. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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