Please cite this article as follows: Jokela M, Lehtimäki T, Keltikangas-Järvinen L. 2007. The Influence of Urban/Rural Residency on Depressive Symptoms is Moderated by the Serotonin Receptor 2A Gene. Am J Med Genet Part B 144B:918–922.
The influence of urban/rural residency on depressive symptoms is moderated by the serotonin receptor 2A gene†
Article first published online: 17 MAY 2007
Copyright © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume 144B, Issue 7, pages 918–922, 5 October 2007
How to Cite
Jokela, M., Lehtimäki, T. and Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2007), The influence of urban/rural residency on depressive symptoms is moderated by the serotonin receptor 2A gene. Am. J. Med. Genet., 144B: 918–922. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.30555
- Issue published online: 14 SEP 2007
- Article first published online: 17 MAY 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 APR 2007
- Manuscript Received: 9 NOV 2006
- Academy of Finland. Grant Number: 1111056
- Tampere University Hospital Medical Fund
- Finnish Cultural Foundation
- Emil Aaltonen Foundation
- Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation
- gene–environment interaction;
Gene–environment interactions are thought to be involved in the development of depression. Here we examined the interaction effect between urban/rural residency and the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) gene on subclinical depressive symptoms. The participants were 1,224 Finnish men and women being followed in the on-going population-based study of “Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns”. Urban/rural residency was determined on the basis of a (1) subjective report and (2) the population density of the residential area. Depressive symptoms were measured in two test settings four years apart. There was a significant gene–environment interaction, such that the urban residency was associated with low depressive symptoms in individuals carrying the T/T or T/C genotype of the T102C polymorphism, but not in those carrying the C/C genotype. The T allele was associated with high depressive symptoms in remote rural areas, but with low depressive symptoms in urban or suburban areas. The gene–environment interaction was not accounted by level of education, social support, unemployment, or partnership status. The HTR2A gene may be involved in the development of depression by influencing how individuals respond to environmental conditions. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.