Association studies between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the 10-repeat allele of a polymorphism (a 40 bp variable number of tandem repeats) in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) have resulted in mixed findings in different populations. We performed a case/control study to clarify the contribution of this allele with ADHD in the Iranian population. No association was observed between the 10-allele and disease (χ2 = 0.081, P < 0.9). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the homozygosity of this allele between the case and control groups (χ2 = 0.022, P < 0.9). Implication of the dopamine transporter gene in the pathophysiology of ADHD warrants investigation of other functional polymorphisms within this gene in the Iranian ADHD patients. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.