In this pharmacogenetic study in adults with ADHD (n = 42), a stratified analysis was performed of the association between response to methylphenidate (MPH), assessed under double-blind conditions, and polymorphisms in the genes encoding the dopamine transporter, SLC6A3 (DAT1), the norepinephrine transporter, SLC6A2 (NET), and the dopamine receptor D4, DRD4. The VNTR polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region of SLC6A3 was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of a response to MPH treatment (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.0–15.2, and OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.4–21.9, depending on the definition of response) in carriers of a single 10-repeat allele compared to patients with the 10/10 genotype. The polymorphisms in DRD4 and the SLC6A2 were not associated with treatment response. This study supports a role of the SLC6A3 genotype in determining the response to MPH in the treatment of adults with ADHD. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.