There has long been discussion on the correlation between schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases (especially celiac disease), which makes the recently discovered celiac disease risk factor, MYO9B, an attractive functional and positional candidate gene for schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis we compared allele frequencies of three MYO9B tag SNPs in 315 schizophrenia cases and 1,624 healthy controls in a genetic association study. Highly significant differences in allele frequencies between schizophrenia cases and healthy controls were observed for SNP rs2305767 in intron 14 of MYO9B (P = 1.16 × 10−4; OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.18–1.67). We demonstrate significant association of allelic variants in MYO9B with schizophrenia. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular genetic evidence for a correlation between autoimmune diseases and the risk of developing schizophrenia. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.