Suicide is one of the ten most common causes of death in Western countries. It involves genetic vulnerability factors and is often associated with major depression. A Japanese team reported an association between the insertion allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with completed suicide. The ACE I/D polymorphism was investigated in two independent case-control studies, one involving 64 suicide completers and 90 controls who all underwent forensic investigations, the second one consisting of 588 suicide attempters and 639 controls. In the two population samples studied a statistically significant risk of suicidal behavior was observed for subjects bearing the DD genotype. These results suggest a possible role of the renin-angiotensin system in suicidal behavior. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.