• RGS;
  • tardive dyskinesia;
  • schizophrenia;
  • antipsychotic;
  • haplotype


Some patients treated chronically with antipsychotics develop tardive dyskinesia (TD), an abnormal involuntary movement disorder. Typical antipsychotics block D2 dopamine receptors (D2DR) and produce D2DR supersensitivity. On contrary, regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) can enhance the signal termination of G-protein-coupled D2DR. Besides, after prolonged inhibition of dopaminergic transmission, dopaminergic agonists induced severe dyskinesia only in RGS9 knock-out mice but not in normal mice. Therefore, variety in the human RGS9 gene may be related to susceptibility to TD. In this study, schizophrenic inpatients receiving long-term antipsychotic treatment were assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale twice over a 3-month interval. Only patients in whom abnormal involuntary movements were absent (non-TD group) and those who showed persistent TD (TD group) were enrolled. There were 407 patients in the study sample (TD = 252; non-TD = 155) and seven single nucleus polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RGS9 gene were genotyped for each subject. Genotype and allelic distributions of SNPs did not differ between the TD and non-TD groups in this study, with the exception that a weak trend of allelic association was seen with rs4790953 (P = 0.0399). In the haplotype analysis, a significant association of the AGG haplotype (rs8077696–rs8070231–rs2292593) of the RGS9 gene was found (permutation P = 0.007), and this is worthy of replication and further study. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.