Accumulating evidence suggests that phosphatidylinositol (PI) pathways have been involved in the secretion of dopamine (DA) and the regulation of DA transporter, which is a target of methamphetamine (METH). A recent large-scale gene-association study in a Dutch population demonstrated that the PIK4CA gene was closely linked to schizophrenia [Jungerius et al. (2007); Mol Psychiatry]. Here, we conducted a case (N = 232)–control (N = 233) study of the PIK4CA gene on Japanese METH abusers, which can manifest severe psychosis similar to schizophrenia. The genotype and allelic distributions of all four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) did not differ significantly between the METH abusers and the controls. The comparisons based on the classification of the psychosis as transient or prolonged and on the presence or absence of spontaneous relapse revealed no significant distribution of the four SNPs compared to the controls. Furthermore, haplotype analyses showed almost the same frequencies between the METH abusers and the controls. The present study suggests that the PIK4CA gene does not play a significant role in the vulnerability to METH use disorder in the Japanese population. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.