Recent genetics research focusing on schizophrenia has led to candidate cognitive and neuroimaging variables as intermediate phenotypes or “endophenotype” markers for the illness. Among other stringent criteria, to be an endophenotype, a marker must demonstrate heritability. In an effort to explore the validity of a selection of cognitive and neuroimaging endophenotypes, the present study was designed to determine estimates of their heritability. One hundred fourteen subjects, including 27 with schizophrenia and 39 unaffected relatives from 23 multiplex schizophrenia families, participated in a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structural brain imaging with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Variables were selected if they previously have been demonstrated to show differences between people with schizophrenia and normal controls. Significant evidence of heritability was confirmed for overall cognitive function (“g”), as well as expressive and receptive language, verbal and visual memory, processing speed and cognitive inhibition. In addition, significant heritability estimates were determined for specific regions in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital areas. These results suggest that the variables chosen may be useful endophenotypes for genetic and early detection studies, although further work with larger cohorts should be conducted to show that deficits in these functions and structures also segregate with schizophrenia within families and thus fully satisfy the definition of an endophenotype. In addition, other cognitive and neuroimaging variables that were not studied here may be candidates for schizophrenia endophenotypes. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.