The findings of a recent study associate LPHN3, a member of the latrophilin family, with an increased risk of developing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common psychiatric disorder in childhood and adolescence. Latrophilins comprise a new family of G protein-coupled receptors of unknown native physiological function that mediate the neurotoxic effects of α-latrotoxin, a potent toxin found in black widow spider venom. This receptor–toxin interaction has helped to elucidate the mechanistic aspects of neurotransmitter and hormone release in vertebrates. Such unprecedented discovery points to a new direction in the assessment of ADHD and suggest that further study of this receptor family may provide novel insights into the etiology and treatment of ADHD and other related psychiatric conditions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.