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The familial association of tourette's disorder and ADHD: The impact of OCD symptoms

Authors

  • Julia A. O'Rourke,

    1. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Biomedical Engineering Department, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts
    3. Laboratory of Computer Science, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Jeremiah M. Scharf,

    1. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Jill Platko,

    1. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • S. Evelyn Stewart,

    1. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Cornelia Illmann,

    1. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Daniel A. Geller,

    1. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Robert A. King,

    1. Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
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  • James F. Leckman,

    1. Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
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  • David L. Pauls

    Corresponding author
    1. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    • Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114.
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  • How to cite this article as follows: O'Rourke JA, Scharf J, Platko J, Stewart SE, Illmann C, Geller DA, King RA, Leckman JF, Pauls DL. 2011. The Familial Association of Tourette's Disorder and ADHD: The Impact of OCD Symptoms. Am J Med Genet Part B 156:553–560.

Abstract

Tourette's disorder (TD) frequently co-occurs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). While the relationship between TD and OCD suggests that they share etiological factors, the exact relationship between TD and ADHD is less clear. The goal of the current analyses was to understand better the familial relationship between DSM-IV ADHD and TD. Direct interview diagnostic data from a case–control study of 692 relatives of 75 comorbid TD and ADHD (TD + ADHD), 74 TD without ADHD (TD Only), 41 ADHD without TD (ADHD Only), and 49 control probands were analyzed. Hierarchical loglinear modeling was used to explore association patterns between TD, ADHD, and OCD or sub-clinical OCD (OCD/OCDsub) diagnoses among the 190 affected probands and their 538 relatives. The presence of OCD or OCDsub diagnosis in a proband was associated with a significantly increased risk of comorbid TD + ADHD in his/her relatives. The finding of an association between TD, ADHD and a proband OCD/OCDsub diagnosis was unexpected. The current results suggest that TD, ADHD, and OCD symptoms have overlapping neurobiology when occurring in families of TD and/or ADHD probands. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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