Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) plays a critical role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters including serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA). Genetic studies have found an association between MAOA and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially impulsivity. However, there has been inconsistency among studies which may be due to the complexity and heterogeneity of ADHD, including its sexual dimorphism and the presence of several subtypes. We conducted transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs) in 1,253 trios and found no association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MAOA with ADHD in general or in the predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) or combined types (ADHD-C), but with the predominantly hyperactive/impulsivity type (ADHD-HI). The association with MAOA was restricted to males, especially males with ADHD-HI. Logistic regression analyses of data from 1,824 cases and 957 controls did not indicate any association. We used analysis of covariance to analyze the association between MAOA genotype with the “inhibit” factor of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in 640 probands and performance on the Stroop test in 810 probands. Probands homozygous for risk alleles found in the TDT test had higher “inhibit” scores on the BRIEF scale which represents more severe impulsivity; this results also was restricted to males. No association was found with Stroop test performance. In conclusion, our results provide some evidence that MAOA may be associated with the ADHD-HI subtype and support the association between MAOA and impulsivity, which may be a potential endophenotype of ADHD. However, the results were strongly influenced by gender. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.