Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a gene involved with myelin production has been shown to have a positive correlation with schizophrenia. Event-related potentials (ERPs) studies provide the evidence of disturbed electrophysiologic marker in schizophrenia. The present study investigated the association of NRG1 genotypes with P300 in schizophrenia. Three polymorphisms in NRG1 gene were detected in 287 Chinese Han schizophrenics and 120 healthy control subjects. Among the total sample, 140 patients and 96 controls underwent P300. There were no significant differences for genotype distributions and allele frequencies between schizophrenic group and the control. A significant difference was observed between the schizophrenic patients and controls in the AT haplotype, with Odds Ratio 0.304 (P = 0.000882, 95% CI = 0.145–0.636). P300 amplitude in the schizophrenic group was significantly lower than that of the controls at Fz, Cz, Pz. P300 latency in the schizophrenic group was also significantly longer than that of the controls at Cz, Pz, Fz. Significant differences of P300 latency between three genotypes of rs3924999 were found at Cz and Pz both in schizophrenic group and the controls. The G/G carriers of rs3924999 tended to perform worse in the P300 latency as compared to A/A or A/G carriers both in the schizophrenia and controls. There were no significant differences for P300 latency and amplitude between schizophrenic group and controls for AT haplotype. NRG1 gene is a susceptible gene for Chinese Han schizophrenia and AT haplotype might have the protective role in the schizophrenia. Rs3924999 in NRG1 gene might functionally impact cognitive processing. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.