Sex differences in the genetic risk for schizophrenia: History of the evidence for sex-specific and sex-dependent effects
Article first published online: 17 OCT 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Special Issue: Identifying the Origins of Mental Illness: A Festschrift in Honor of Ming T. Tsuang
Volume 162, Issue 7, pages 698–710, October 2013
How to Cite
2013. Sex Differences in the Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia: History of the Evidence for Sex-Specific and Sex-Dependent Effects. Am J Med Genet Part B 162B:698–710., , .
- Issue published online: 17 OCT 2013
- Article first published online: 17 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 25 FEB 2013
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Mental Health Centers for Intervention Development and Applied Research (CIDAR). Grant Number: P50 MH08272-02
- NIMH. Grant Number: RO1 MH50647 RO1 MH56956
- sex chromosomes;
- genetic transmission
Although there is a long history to examinations of sex differences in the familial (and specifically, genetic) transmission of schizophrenia, there have been few investigators who have systematically and rigorously studied this issue. This is true even in light of population and clinical studies identifying significant sex differences in incidence, expression, neuroanatomic and functional brain abnormalities, and course of schizophrenia. This review highlights the history of work in this arena from studies of family transmission patterns, linkage and twin studies to the current molecular genetic strategies of large genome-wide association studies. Taken as a whole, the evidence supports the presence of genetic risks of which some are sex-specific (i.e., presence in one sex and not the other) or sex-dependent (i.e., quantitative differences in risk between the sexes). Thus, a concerted effort to systematically investigate these questions is warranted and, as we argue here, necessary in order to fully understand the etiology of schizophrenia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.