Association of genetic risk severity with ADHD clinical characteristics

Authors

  • Amelia Kotte,

    1. Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts
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  • Stephen V. Faraone,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York
    2. Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York
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  • Joseph Biederman

    Corresponding author
    1. Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    2. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts
    • Correspondence to:

      Joseph Biederman, M.D., Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care, YAW-6A-6900, 32 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114-3139.

      E-mail: jbiederman@partners.org

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  • Conflict of interest: Dr. Joseph Biederman received research support, was a speaker for, or was on the advisory board for the following: Alza, AstraZeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Co., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., McNeil, Merck, Organon, Otsuka, Shire, Novartis, UCB Pharma, Inc., Abbott, Celltech, Cephalon, Esai, Forest, Glaxo, Gliatech, NARSAD, New River, Noven, Neurosearch, Pfizer, Pharmacia, The Prechter Foundation, The Stanley Foundation, Wyeth, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). In the past year, Dr. Faraone received consulting income and/or research support from Shire, Akili Interactive Labs, and Alcobra and research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He is also on the Clinical Advisory Board for Akili Interactive Labs. In previous years, he received consulting fees or was on Advisory Boards or participated in continuing medical education programs sponsored by: Shire, Alcobra, Otsuka, McNeil, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, and Eli Lilly. Dr. Faraone receives royalties from books published by Guilford Press: Straight Talk about Your Child's Mental Health and Oxford University Press: Schizophrenia: The Facts. Dr. Amelia Kotte does not have any financial interests to disclose.

Abstract

This study sought to examine the association between the cumulative risk severity conferred by the total number of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk alleles of the DAT1 3′UTR variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), DRD4 Exon 3 VNTR, and 5-HTTLPR with ADHD characteristics, clinical correlates, and functional outcomes in a pediatric sample. Participants were derived from case–control family studies of boys and girls diagnosed with ADHD, a genetic linkage study of families with children with ADHD, and a family genetic study of pediatric bipolar disorder. Caucasian children 18 and younger with and without ADHD and with available genetic data were included in this analysis (N = 591). The association of genetic risk severity with sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, neuropsychological, emotional, and behavioral correlates was examined in the entire sample, in the sample with ADHD, and in the sample without ADHD, respectively. Greater genetic risk severity was significantly associated with the presence of disruptive behavior disorders in the entire sample and oppositional defiant disorder in participants with ADHD. Greater genetic risk severity was also associated with the absence of anxiety disorders, specifically with the absence of agoraphobia in the context of ADHD. Additionally, one ADHD symptom was significantly associated with greater genetic risk severity. Genetic risk severity is significantly associated with ADHD clinical characteristics and co-morbid disorders, and the nature of these associations may vary on the type (externalizing vs. internalizing) of the disorder. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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