Haplotype co-segregation with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in unrelated german multi-generation families


  • Conflict of interest: The authors declare no competing financial interest.


Complex disorders have proved to be elusive in the search for underlying genetic causes. In the presence of large multi-generation pedigrees with multiple affected individuals, heritable familial forms of the disorders can be postulated. Observations of particular chromosomal haplotypes shared among all affected individuals within pedigrees may reveal chromosomal regions, in which the disease-related genes may be located. Hence, the biochemical pathways involved in pathogenesis can be exposed. We have recruited eight large Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, OMIM: #143465) families of German descent. Densely spaced informative microsatellite markers with high heterozygosity rates were used to fine-map and haplotype chromosomal regions of interest in these families. In three subsets and one full family of the eight ADHD families, haplotypes co-segregating with ADHD-affected individuals were identified at chromosomes 1q25, 5q11–5q13, 9q31–9q32, and 18q11–18q21. Positive LOD scores supported these co-segregations. The existence of haplotypes co-segregating among affected individuals in large ADHD pedigrees suggests the existence of Mendelian forms of the disorder and that ADHD-related genes are located within these haplotypes. In depth sequencing of these haplotype regions can identify causative genetic mechanisms and will allow further insights into the clinico-genetics of this complex disorder. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.