Disclosure: LAR was on the speakers' bureau and/or acted as consultant for Eli-Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, and Shire in the last 3 years. He receives authorship royalties from Oxford Press and ArtMed. The ADHD and Juvenile Bipolar Disorder Outpatient Programs chaired by him received unrestricted educational and research support from the following pharmaceutical companies in the last 3 years: Abbott, Eli-Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, and Shire. CK took part in two meetings on ADHD partially sponsored by Novartis and Shire. He also took part in a meeting on the promotion of editorial capacity among editors from low-income and middle-income countries sponsored by Deva. He receives authorship royalties from ArtMed. Other authors (EMB, GCAM, ASO, and MH) do not have conflict of interest to report.
ADHD pharmacogenetics across the life cycle: New findings and perspectives
Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume 165, Issue 4, pages 263–282, June 2014
How to Cite
2014. ADHD Pharmacogenetics Across the Life Cycle: New Findings and Perspectives. Am J Med Genet Part B 165B:263–282., , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 1 JUN 2014
- Article first published online: 8 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 APR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 8 APR 2013
- National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) [Bolsa de Produtividade em Pesquisa]
- Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)
- Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS)
- medication response;
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affecting individuals across the life cycle. Although its etiology is not yet completely understood, genetics plays a substantial role. Pharmacological treatment is considered effective and safe for children and adults, but there is considerable inter-individual variability among patients regarding response to medication, required doses, and adverse events. We present here a systematic review of the literature on ADHD pharmacogenetics to provide a critical discussion of the existent findings, new approaches, limitations, and recommendations for future research. Our main findings are: first, the number of studies continues to grow, making ADHD one of the mental health areas with more pharmacogenetic studies. Second, there has been a focus shift on ADHD pharmacogenetic studies in the last years. There is an increasing number of studies assessing gene–gene and gene–environment interactions, using genome-wide association approaches, neuroimaging, and assessing pharmacokinetic properties. Third and most importantly, the heterogeneity in methodological strategies employed by different studies remains impressive. The question whether pharmacogenetics studies of ADHD will improve clinical management by shifting from trial-and-error approach to a pharmacological regimen that takes into account the individual variability remains unanswered. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.