SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Almasy L, Blangero J. 2001. Endophenotypes as quantitative risk factors for psychiatric disease: Rationale and study design. Am J Med Genet 105(1):4244.
  • American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  • Anderson VR, Scott LJ. 2006. Methylphenidate transdermal system: In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Drugs 66(8):11171126.
  • Andrews GD, Lavin A. 2006. Methylphenidate increases cortical excitability via activation of alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 31(3):594601.
  • Arcos-Burgos M, Castellanos FX, Lopera F, Pineda D, Palacio JD, Garcia M, Henao GC, Palacio LG, Berg K, Bailey-Wilson JE, Muenke M. 2002. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Feasibility of linkage analysis in a genetic isolate using extended and multigenerational pedigrees. Clin Genet 61(5):335343.
  • Arcos-Burgos M, Jain M, Acosta MT, Shively S, Stanescu H, Wallis D, Domené S, Vélez JI, Karkera JD, Balog J, Berg K, Kleta R, Gahl WA, Roessler E, Long R, Lie J, Pineda D, Londoño AC, Palacio JD, Arbelaez A, Lopera F, Elia J, Hakonarson H, Johansson S, Knappskog PM, Haavik J, Ribases M, Cormand B, Bayes M, Casas M, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Hervas A, Maher BS, Faraone SV, Seitz C, Freitag CM, Palmason H, Meyer J, Romanos M, Walitza S, Hemminger U, Warnke A, Romanos J, Renner T, Jacob C, Lesch KP, Swanson J, Vortmeyer A, Bailey-Wilson JE, Castellanos FX, Muenke M. 2010. A common variant of the latrophilin 3 gene, LPHN3, confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication. Mol Psychiatry 15(11):10531066.
  • Arnsten AF, Dudley AG. 2005. Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Behav Brain Funct 1(1):2.
  • Asghari V, Sanyal S, Buchwaldt S, Paterson A, Jovanovic V, Van Tol HH. 1995. Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants. J Neurochem 65(3):11571165.
  • Barkley RA, DuPaul GJ, McMurray MB. 1991. Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: Clinical response to three dose levels of methylphenidate. Pediatrics 87(4):519531.
  • Biederman J, Faraone SV. 2005. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 366(9481):237248.
  • Blood-Siegfried J, Rende EK. 2010. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on neurologic development. J Midwifery Womens Health 55(2):143152.
  • Blum NJ, Jawad AF, Clarke AT, Power TJ. 2011. Effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on different domains of attention and executive functioning in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 53(9):843849.
  • Bruxel EM, Salatino-Oliveira A, Genro JP, Zeni CP, Polanczyk GV, Chazan R, Rohde LA, Hutz MH. 2013. Association of a carboxylesterase 1 polymorphism with appetite reduction in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with methylphenidate. Pharmacogenomics J 13(5):476480.
  • Castellanos FX, Tannock R. 2002. Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nat Rev Neurosci 3(8):617628.
  • Castellanos FX, Lee PP, Sharp W, Jeffries NO, Greenstein DK, Clasen LS, Blumenthal JD, James RS, Ebens CL, Walter JM, Zijdenbos A, Evans AC, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL. 2002. Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA 288(14):17401748.
  • Chazan R, Borowski C, Pianca T, Ludwig H, Rohde LA, Polanczyk G. 2011. Do phenotypic characteristics, parental psychopathology, family functioning, and environmental stressors have a role in the response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? A naturalistic study from a developing country. J Clin Psychopharmacol 31(3):309317.
  • Chen J, Lipska BK, Halim N, Ma QD, Matsumoto M, Melhem S. 2004. Functional analysis of genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): Effects on mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in postmortem human brain. Am J Hum Genet 75:807821.
  • Cheon KA, Jun JY, Cho DY. 2008. Association of the catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism with methylphenidate response in a classroom setting in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 23(5):291298.
  • Cheon KA, Kim BN, Cho SC. 2007. Association of 4-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphism and response to methylphenidate treatment in Korean ADHD children. Neuropsychopharmacology 32(6):13771383.
  • Cho SC, Kim HW, Kim BN, Kim JW, Shin MS, Cho DY, Chung S, Jung SW, Yoo HJ, Chung IW, Chung US, Son JW. 2010. Neurotrophin-3 gene, intelligence, and selective attention deficit in a Korean sample with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:10651069.
  • Cho SC, Kim BN, Cummins TD, Kim JW, Bellgrove MA. 2012. Norepinephrine transporter −3081(A/T) and alpha-2A-adrenergic receptor MspI polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular side effects of OROS-methylphenidate treatment. J Psychopharmacol 26(3):380389.
  • Choudhry Z, Sengupta SM, Grizenko N, Fortier ME, Thakur GA, Bellingham J, Joober R. 2012. LPHN3 and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Interaction with maternal stress during pregnancy. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53(8):892902.
  • Ciliax BJ, Drash GW, Staley JK, Haber S, Mobley CJ, Miller GW, Mufson EJ, Mash DC, Levey AI. 1999. Immunocytochemical localization of the dopamine transporter in human brain. J Comp Neurol 409(1):3856.
  • Contini V, Victor MM, Marques FZ, Bertuzzi GP, Salgado CA, Silva KL, Sousa NO, Grevet EH, Belmonte-de-Abreu P, Bau CH. 2010. Response to methylphenidate is not influenced by DAT1 polymorphisms in a sample of Brazilian adult patients with ADHD. J Neural Transm 117(2):269276.
  • Contini V, Victor MM, Cerqueira CC, Polina ER, Grevet EH, Salgado CA, Karam RG, Vitola ES, Belmonte-de-Abreu P, Bau CH. 2011. Adrenergic α2A receptor gene is not associated with methylphenidate response in adults with ADHD. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 261(3):205211.
  • Contini V, Victor MM, Bertuzzi GP, Salgado CA, Picon FA, Grevet EH, Rohde LA, Belmonte-de-Abreu P, Bau CH. 2012. No significant association between genetic variants in 7 candidate genes and response to methylphenidate treatment in adult patients with ADHD. J Clin Psychopharmacol 32(6):820823.
  • Cordell HJ. 2009. Detecting gene-gene interactions that underlie human diseases. Nat Rev Genet 10(6):392404.
  • Cortese S. 2012. The neurobiology and genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): What every clinician should know. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 16(5):422433.
  • Cortese B, Bertoletti A, De Matteis S, Danzi GB, Kastrati A. 2012. Drug-eluting stents perform better than bare metal stents in small coronary vessels: a meta-analysis of randomised and observational clinical studies with mid-term follow up. Int J Cardiol 161(2):7382.
  • da Silva TL, Pianca TG, Roman T, Hutz MH, Faraone SV, Schmitz M, Rohde LA. 2008. Adrenergic alpha2A receptor gene and response to methylphenidate in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-predominantly inattentive type. J Neural Transm 115(2):341345.
  • Duman RS. 2002. Synaptic plasticity and mood disorders. Mol Psychiatry 7(Suppl. 1):2934.
  • Durston S. 2003. A review of the biological bases of ADHD: What have we learned from imaging studies? Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 9(3):184195.
  • Ernst M, Moolchan ET, Robinson ML. 2001. Behavioral and neural consequences of prenatal exposure to nicotine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40(6):630641.
  • Evans WE, Johnson JA. 2001. Pharmacogenomics: The inherited basis for interindividual differences in drug response. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2:939.
  • Faraone SV, Buitelaar J. 2010. Comparing the efficacy of stimulants for ADHD in children and adolescents using meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19(4):353364.
  • Fernandes BS, Gama CS, Walz JC, Ceresér KM, Fries GR, Colpo G, Aguiar B, Pfaffenseller B, Kauer-Sant'anna M, Kapczinski F. 2010. Increased neurotrophin-3 in drug-free subjects with bipolar disorder during manic and depressive episodes. J Psychiatr Res 44:561565.
  • Faraone SV, Mick E. 2010. Molecular genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 33(1):159180.
  • Flanagin BA, Cook EH, de Wit H. 2006. An association study of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and amphetamine response. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141B:576583.
  • Froehlich TE, McGough JJ, Stein MA. 2010. Progress and promise of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacogenetics. CNS Drugs 24(2):99117.
  • Froehlich TE, Epstein JN, Nick TG, Melguizo Castro MS, Stein MA, Brinkman WB, Graham AJ, Langberg JM, Kahn RS. 2011. Pharmacogenetic predictors of methylphenidate dose-response in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(11):1129.e21139.e2.
  • Gainetdinov RR, Wetsel WC, Jones SR, Levin ED, Jaber M, Caron MC. 1999. Role of serotonin in the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants on hyperactivity. Science 283:397401.
  • Gaspar P, Berger B, Febvret A, Vigny A, Henry JP. 1989. Catecholamine innervation of the human cerebral cortex as revealed by comparative immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. J Comp Neurol 279(2):249271.
  • Genro JP, Polanczyk GV, Zeni C, Oliveira AS, Roman T, Rohde LA, Hutz MH. 2008. A common haplotype at the dopamine transporter gene 5′ region is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet Part B 147B(8):15681575.
  • Genro JP, Kieling C, Rohde LA, Hutz MH. 2010. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the dopaminergic hypotheses. Expert Rev Neurother 10(4):587601.
  • Ghuman JK, Riddle MA, Vitiello B, Greenhill LL, Chuang SZ, Wigal SB, Kollins SH, Abikoff HB, McCracken JT, Kastelic E, Scharko AM, McGough JJ, Murray DW, Evans L, Swanson JM, Wigal T, Posner K, Cunningham C, Davies M, Skrobala AM. 2007. Comorbidity moderates response to methylphenidate in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS). J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17(5):563580.
  • Giedd JN, Rapoport JL. 2010. Structural MRI of pediatric brain development: What have we learned and where are we going? Neuron 67(5):728734.
  • Gizer IR, Ficks C, Waldman ID. 2009. Candidate gene studies of ADHD: A meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 126(1):5190.
  • Goez H, Back-Bennet O, Zelnik N. 2007. Differential stimulant response on attention in children with comorbid anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder. J Child Neurol 22(5):538542.
  • Gonzalez FJ, Idle JR. 1994. Pharmacogenetic phenotyping and genotyping. Present status and future potential Clin Pharmacokinet 26(1):5970.
  • Greenhill LL, Abikoff HB, Arnold LE, Cantwell DP, Conners CK, Elliott G, Hechtman L, Hinshaw SP, Hoza B, Jensen PS, March JS, Newcorn J, Pelham WE, Severe JB, Swanson JM, Vitiello B, Wells K. 1996. Medication treatment strategies in the MTA Study: Relevance to clinicians and researchers. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35(10):13041313.
  • Greenhill LL, Pliszka S, Dulcan MK, Bernet W, Arnold V, Beitchman J, Benson RS, Bukstein O, Kinlan J, McClellan J, Rue D, Shaw JA, Stock S, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2002. Practice parameter for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41(2 Suppl.):26S49S.
  • Grizenko N, Paci M, Joober R. 2010. Is the inattentive subtype of ADHD different from the combined/hyperactive subtype? J Atten Disord 13(6):649657.
  • Hannestad J, Gallezot JD, Planeta-Wilson B, Lin SF, Williams WA, van Dyck CH, Malison RT, Carson RE, Ding YS. 2010. Clinically relevant doses of methylphenidate significantly occupy norepinephrine transporters in humans in vivo. Biol Psychiatry 68(9):854860.
  • Heal DJ, Smith SL, Gosden J, Nutt DJ. 2013. Amphetamine, past and present—A pharmacological and clinical perspective. J Psychopharmacol 27(6):479496.
  • Heils A, Teufel A, Petri S, Stöber G, Riederer P, Bengel D, Lesch KP. 1996. Allelic variation of human serotonin transporter gene expression. J Neurochem 66(6):26212624.
  • Henningsson S, Borg J, Lundberg J, Bah J, Lindström M, Ryding E, Jovanovic H, Saijo T, Inoue M, Rosén I, Träskman-Bendz L, Farde L, Eriksson E. 2009. Genetic variation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with serotonin transporter but not serotonin-1A receptor availability in men. Biol Psychiatry 66(5):477485.
  • Hock C, Heese K, Muller-Spahn F, Huber P, Riesen W, Nitsch RM, Otten U. 2000. Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) in elderly patients with major depression. Mol Psychiatry 5:510513.
  • Hong SB, Kim JW, Cho SC, Shin MS, Kim BN, Yoo HJ. 2012. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic gene polymorphisms and response to methylphenidate in korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Is there an interaction? J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 22(5):343352.
  • Hyman C, Hofer M, Barde YA, Juhasz M, Yancopoulos GD, Squinto SP, Lindsay RM. 1991. BDNF is a neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Nature 350(6315):230232.
  • Intuniv® (guanfacine) extended-release tablets [package insert]. 2011. Wayne, PA: Shire US Inc.
  • Jain M, Vélez JI, Acosta MT, Palacio LG, Balog J, Roessler E, Pineda D, Londoño AC, Palacio JD, Arbelaez A, Lopera F, Elia J, Hakonarson H, Seitz C, Freitag CM, Palmason H, Meyer J, Romanos M, Walitza S, Hemminger U, Warnke A, Romanos J, Renner T, Jacob C, Lesch KP, Swanson J, Castellanos FX, Bailey-Wilson JE, Arcos-Burgos M, Muenke M. 2012. A cooperative interaction between LPHN3 and 11q doubles the risk for ADHD. Mol Psychiatry 17(7):741747.
  • Ji HS, Paik KC, Park WS, Lim MH. 2013. No Association between the response to methylphenidate and DRD4 gene polymorphism in Korean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A case control study. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 11(1):1317.
  • Joober R, Grizenko N, Sengupta S, Amor LB, Schmitz N, Schwartz G, Karama S, Lageix P, Fathalli F, Torkaman-Zehi A, Ter Stepanian M. 2007. Dopamine transporter 3′-UTR VNTR genotype and ADHD: A pharmaco-behavioural genetic study with methylphenidate. Neuropsychopharmacology 32(6):13701376.
  • Kambeitz J, Romanos M, Ettinger U. 2014. Meta-analysis of the association between dopamine transporter genotype and response to methylphenidate treatment in ADHD. Pharmacogenomics J 14(1):7784.
  • Kent L, Green E, Hawi Z, Kirley A, Dudbridge F, Lowe N, Raybould R, Langley K, Bray N, Fitzgerald M, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC, Gill M, Thapar A, Craddock N. 2005. Association of the paternally transmitted copy of common valine allele of the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene with susceptibility to ADHD. Mol Psychiatry 10(10):939943.
  • Kereszturi E, Tarnok Z, Bognar E, Lakatos K, Farkas L, Gadoros J, Sasvari-Szekely M, Nemoda Z. 2008. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism is associated with methylphenidate response in ADHD children. Am J Med Genet Part B 147B(8):14311435.
  • Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Demler O, Faraone SV, Greenhill LL, Howes MJ, Secnik K, Spencer T, Ustun TB, Walters EE, Zaslavsky AM. 2006. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry 163(4):716723.
  • Kessler RC, Avenevoli S, McLaughlin KA, Green JG, Lakoma MD, Petukhova M, Pine DS, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, Merikangas KR. 2012. Lifetime co-morbidity of DSM-IV disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Psychol Med 42(9):19972010.
  • Kieling C, Genro JP, Hutz MH, Rohde LA. 2010. A current update on ADHD pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics 11(3):407419.
  • Kim CH, Hahn MK, Joung Y, Anderson SL, Steele AH, Mazei-Robinson MS, Gizer I, Teicher MH, Cohen BM, Robertson D, Waldman ID, Blakely RD, Kim KS. 2006. A polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene alters promoter activity and is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(50):1916419169.
  • Kim BN, Kim JW, Hong SB, Cho SC, Shin MS, Yoo HJ. 2010. Possible association of norepinephrine transporter −3081(A/T) polymorphism with methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Funct 6:57.
  • Kim BN, Cummins TD, Kim JW, Bellgrove MA, Hong SB, Song SH, Shin MS, Cho SC, Kim JH, Son JW, Shin YM, Chung US, Han DH. 2011. Val/Val genotype of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with a better response to OROS-MPH in Korean ADHD children. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 14(10):13991410.
  • Kim BN, Kim JW, Cummins TD, Bellgrove MA, Hawi Z, Hong SB, Yang YH, Kim HJ, Shin MS, Cho SC, Kim JH, Son JW, Shin YM, Chung US, Han DH. 2013a. Norepinephrine genes predict response time variability and methylphenidate-induced changes in neuropsychological function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 33(3):356362.
  • Kim SW, Lee JH, Lee SH, Hong HJ, Lee MG, Yook KH. 2013b. ABCB1 c.2677G>T variation is associated with adverse reactions of OROS-methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD. J Clin Psychopharmacol 33(4):491498.
  • Kirley A, Lowe N, Hawi Z, Mullins C, Daly G, Waldman I, McCarron M, O'Donnell D, Fitzgerald M, Gill M. 2003. Association of the 480 bp DAT1 allele with methylphenidate response in a sample of Irish children with ADHD. Am J Med Genet Part B 121B(1):5054.
  • Kooij JS, Boonstra AM, Vermeulen SH, Heister AG, Burger H, Buitelaar JK, Franke B. 2008. Response to methylphenidate in adults with ADHD is associated with a polymorphism in SLC6A3 (DAT1). Am J Med Genet Part B 147B(2):201208.
  • Kornfield R, Watson S, Higashi AS, Conti RM, Dusetzina SB, Garfield CF, Dorsey ER, Huskamp HA, Alexander GC. 2013. Effects of FDA Advisories on the Pharmacologic Treatment of ADHD, 2004–2008. Psychiatr Serv
  • Labbe A, Liu A, Atherton J, Gizenko N, Fortier M, Sengupta SM, Ridha J. 2012. Refining psychiatric phenotypes for response to treatment: Contribution of LPHN3 in ADHD. Am J Med Genet Part B 159B(7):776785.
  • Langley K, Heron J, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ, Thapar A. 2010. Genotype link with extreme antisocial behavior: the contribution of cognitive pathways. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(12):13171323.
  • Langley K, Turic D, Peirce TR, Mills S, Van Den Bree MB, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC, Thapar A. 2005. No support for association between the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and ADHD. Am J Med Genet Part B 139B(1):710.
  • Lee SH, Kim SW, Lee MG, Yook KH, Greenhill LL, Fradin KN, Frandin KN, Hong HJ. 2011. Lack of association between response of OROS-methylphenidate and norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2) polymorphism in Korean ADHD. Psychiatry Res 186(2–3):338344.
  • Lesch KP, Merker S, Reif A, Novak M. 2013. Dances with black widow spiders: Dysregulation of glutamate signalling enters centre stage in ADHD. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 23(6):479491.
  • Levy F, Wimalaweera S, Moul C, Brennan J, Dadds MR. 2013. Dopamine receptors and the pharmacogenetics of side-effects of stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 23(6):423425.
  • Linets'ka MV, Storchak LH, Himmelreĭch NH. 2002. Effect of synaptosomal cytosolic [3H]GABA pool depletion on secretory ability of alpha-latrotoxin. Ukr Biokhim Zh 74(3):6572.
  • Lipsky RH, Hu XZ, Goldman D. 2009. Additional functional variation at the SLC6A4 gene. Am J Med Genet Part B 150B(1):153.
  • Lotta T, Vidgren J, Tilgmann C, Ulmanen I, Melén K, Julkunen I, Taskinen J. 1995. Kinetics of human soluble and membrane-bound catechol O-methyltransferase: A revised mechanism and description of the thermolabile variant of the enzyme. Biochemistry 34(13):42024210.
  • Lucki I. 1998. The spectrum of behaviors influenced by serotonin. Biol Psychiatry 44:151162.
  • Madras BK, Miller GM, Fischman AJ. 2005. The dopamine transporter and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57(11):13971409.
  • Maness LM, Kastin AJ, Weber JT, et al. 1994. The neurotrophins and their receptors: Structure, function, and neuropathology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 18:143159.
  • McGough J, McCracken J, Swanson J, Riddle M, Kollins S, Greenhill L, Abikoff H, Davies M, Chuang S, Wigal T, Wigal S, Posner K, Skrobala A, Kastelic E, Ghuman J, Cunningham C, Shigawa S, Moyzis R, Vitiello B. 2006. Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate response in preschoolers with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45(11):13141322.
  • McGough JJ, McCracken JT, Loo SK, Manganiello M, Leung MC, Tietjens JR, Trinh T, Baweja S, Suddath R, Smalley SL, Hellemann G, Sugar CA. 2009. A candidate gene analysis of methylphenidate response in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48(12):11551164.
  • Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, Swanson SA, Avenevoli S, Cui L, Benjet C, Georgiades K, Swendsen J. 2010. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication—Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49(10):980989.
  • Michelson D, Faries D, Wernicke J, Kelsey D, Kendrick K, Sallee FR, Spencer T, Atomoxetine ADHD Study Group. 2001. Atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Pediatrics 108(5):E83.
  • Mick E, Biederman J, Spencer T, Faraone SV, Sklar P. 2006. Absence of association with DAT1 polymorphism and response to methylphenidate in a sample of adults with ADHD. Am J Med Genet Part B 141B(8):890894.
  • Mick E, Neale B, Middleton FA, McGough JJ, Faraone SV. 2008. Genome-wide association study of response to methylphenidate in 187 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet Part B 147B(8):14121418.
  • Mick E, McGough JJ, Middleton FA, Neale B, Faraone SV. 2011. Genome-wide association study of blood pressure response to methylphenidate treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35(2):466472.
  • Mill J, Asherson P, Browes C, D'Souza U, Craig I. 2002. Expression of the dopamine transporter gene is regulated by the 3′ UTRVNTR: Evidence from brain and lymphocytes using quantitative RT-PCR. Am J Med Genet 114:975979.
  • Nadder TS, Rutter M, Silberg JL, Maes HH, Eaves LJ. 2002. Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (Odd/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement. Psychol Med 32(1):3953.
  • Negrao BL, Crafford D, Viljoen M. 2009. The effect of sympathomimetic medication on cardiovascular functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Cardiovasc J Afr 20(5):296299.
  • Nigg JT, Casey BJ. 2005. An integrative theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder based on the cognitive and affective neurosciences. Dev Psychopathol 17(3):785806.
  • Nigg J, Nikolas M, Burt SA. 2010. Measured gene-by-environment interaction in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:863873.
  • Öner Ö, Akın A, Herken H, Erdal ME, Çiftçi K, Ay ME, Bicer D, Öncü B, Bozkurt OH, Münir K, Yazgan Y. 2011. Association among SNAP-25 gene DdeI and MnlI polymorphisms and hemodynamic changes during methylphenidate use: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. J Atten Disord 15(8):628637.
  • Park MH, Kim JW, Yang YH, Hong SB, Park S, Kang H, Kim BN, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Cho SC. 2012a. Regional brain perfusion before and after treatment with methylphenidate may be associated with the G1287A polymorphism of the norepinephrine transporter gene in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurosci Lett 514(2):159163.
  • Park S, Kim JW, Yang YH, Hong SB, Park MH, Kim BN, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Cho SC. 2012b. Possible effect of norepinephrine transporter polymorphisms on methylphenidate-induced changes in neuropsychological function in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Funct 8:22.
  • Park S, Kim BN, Kim JW, Shin MS, Cho SC, Kim JH, Son JW, Shin YM, Chung US, Han DH. 2014. Neurotrophin 3 genotype and emotional adverse effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Psychopharmacol 28(3):220226.
  • Pasini A, Sinibaldi L, Paloscia C, Douzgou S, Pitzianti MB, Romeo E, Curatolo P, Pizzuti A. 2013. Neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate on ADHD children with different DAT genotypes: A longitudinal open label trial. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 17(4):407414.
  • Pezawas L, Verchinski BA, Mattay VS, Callicott JH, Kolachana BS, Straub RE, Egan MF, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Weinberger DR. 2004. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and variation in human cortical morphology J Neurosci 24(45):1009910102.
  • Plichta MM, Vasic N, Wolf RC, Lesch KP, Brummer D, Jacob C, Fallgatter AJ, Grön G. 2009. Neural hyporesponsiveness and hyperresponsiveness during immediate and delayed reward processing in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 65(1):714.
  • Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. 2007a. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: A systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 164(6):942948.
  • Polanczyk G, Zeni C, Genro JP, Guimarães AP, Roman T, Hutz MH, Rohde LA. 2007b. Association of the adrenergic alpha2A receptor gene with methylphenidate improvement of inattentive symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(2):218224.
  • Polanczyk G, Faraone SV, Bau CH, Victor MM, Becker K, Pelz R, Buitelaar JK, Franke B, Kooij S, van der Meulen E, Cheon KA, Mick E, Purper-Ouakil D, Gorwood P, Stein MA, Cook EH, Rohde LA. 2008. The impact of individual and methodological factors in the variability of response to methylphenidate in ADHD pharmacogenetic studies from four different continents. Am J Med Genet Part B 147B(8):14191424.
  • Polanczyk G, Bigarella MP, Hutz MH, Rohde LA. 2010. Pharmacogenetic approach for a better drug treatment in children. Curr Pharm Des 16(22):24622473.
  • Purper-Ouakil D, Wohl M, Orejarena S, Cortese S, Boni C, Asch M, Mouren MC, Gorwood P. 2008. Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate response in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Association with the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3). Am J Med Genet Part B 147B(8):14251430.
  • Rahman MA, Ashton AC, Meunier FA, Davletov BA, Dolly JO, Ushkaryov YA. 1999. Norepinephrine exocytosis stimulated by alpha-latrotoxin requires both external and stored Ca2+ and is mediated by latrophilin, G proteins and phospholipase C. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354(1381):379386.
  • Ramoz N, Boni C, Downing AM, Close SL, Peters SL, Prokop AM, Allen AJ, Hamon M, Purper-Ouakil D, Gorwood P. 2009. A haplotype of the norepinephrine transporter (Net) gene Slc6a2 is associated with clinical response to atomoxetine in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuropsychopharmacology 34(9):21352142.
  • Ribasés M, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Sánchez-Mora C, Bosch R, Richarte V, Palomar G, Gastaminza X, Bielsa A, Arcos-Burgos M, Muenke M, Castellanos FX, Cormand B, Bayés M, Casas M. 2011. Contribution of LPHN3 to the genetic susceptibility to ADHD in adulthood: A replication study. Genes Brain Behav 10(2):149157.
  • Roman T, Schmitz M, Polanczyk GV, Eizirik M, Rohde LA, Hutz MH. 2002a. Further evidence for the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the dopamine-β-hydroxylase gene. Am J Med Genet 114:154158.
  • Roman T, Szobot C, Martins S, Biederman J, Rohde LA, Hutz MH. 2002b. Dopamine transporter gene and response to methylphenidate in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacogenetics 12(6):497499.
  • Sakaeda T, Nakamura T, Okumura K. 2003. Pharmacogenetics of MDR1 and its impact on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. Pharmacogenomics 4(4):397410.
  • Salatino-Oliveira A, Genro JP, Zeni C, Polanczyk GV, Chazan R, Guimarães AP, Callegari-Jacques SM, Rohde LA, Hutz MH. 2011. Catechol-O-methyltransferase valine158methionine polymorphism moderates methylphenidate effects on oppositional symptoms in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 70(3):216221.
  • Sallee F, Connor DF, Newcorn JH. 2013. A review of the rationale and clinical utilization of α2-adrenoceptor agonists for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity and related disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 23(5):308319.
  • Sasaki T, Ito H, Kimura Y, Arakawa R, Takano H, Seki C, Kodaka F, Fujie S, Takahata K, Nogami T, Suzuki M, Fujiwara H, Takahashi H, Nakao R, Fukumura T, Varrone A, Halldin C, Nishikawa T, Suhara T. 2012. Quantification of dopamine transporter in human brain using PET with 18F-FE-PE2I. J Nucl Med 53(7):10651073.
  • Sauer JM, Ponsler GD, Mattiuz EL, Long AJ, Witcher JW, Thomasson HR, Desante KA. 2003. Disposition and metabolic fate of atomoxetine hydrochloride: The role of CYP2D6 in human disposition and metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos 31(1):98107.
  • Scheres A, Milham MP, Knutson B, Castellanos FX. 2007. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 61(5):720724.
  • Schmitt J, Romanos M. 2012. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166(11):10741075.
  • Schoots O, Van Tol HH. 2003. The human dopamine D4 receptor repeat sequences modulate expression. Pharmacogenomics J 3(6):343348.
  • Shier AC, Reichenbacher T, Ghuman HS, Ghuman JK. 2013. Pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Clinical strategies. J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 5:117.
  • Sonuga-Barke EJ. 2005. Causal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: From common simple deficits to multiple developmental pathways. Biol Psychiatry 57(11):12311238.
  • Souza I, Pinheiro MA, Denardin D, Mattos P, Rohde LA. 2004. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity in Brazil: Comparisons between two referred samples. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(4):243248.
  • Spencer T, Biederman J, Wilens T. 2000. Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 9(1):7797.
  • Stein MT. 2004. When parents and teachers disagree about a child's behavior: An opportunity for further evaluations. J Dev Behav Pediatr 25(1):5051; discussion 52.
  • Stein MA, McGough JJ. 2008. The pharmacogenomic era: Promise for personalizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapy. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 17(2):475490 xi-xii.
  • Stein MA, Sarampote CS, Waldman ID, Robb AS, Conlon C, Pearl PL, Black DO, Seymour KE, Newcorn JH. 2003. A dose-response study of OROS methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 112(5):e404.
  • Stein MA, Waldman ID, Sarampote CS, Seymour KE, Robb AS, Conlon C, Kim SJ, Cook EH. 2005. Dopamine transporter genotype and methylphenidate dose response in children with ADHD. Neuropsychopharmacology 30(7):13741382.
  • Ströhle A, Stoy M, Wrase J, Schwarzer S, Schlagenhauf F, Huss M, Hein J, Nedderhut A, Neumann B, Gregor A, Juckel G, Knutson B, Lehmkuhl U, Bauer M, Heinz A. 2008. Reward anticipation and outcomes in adult males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuroimage 39(3):966972.
  • Swanson J, Castellanos FX, Murias M, LaHoste G, Kennedy J. 1998. Cognitive neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. Curr Opin Neurobiol 8(2):263271.
  • Syed Z, Dudbridge F, Kent L. 2007. An investigation of the neurotrophic factor genes GDNF, NGF, and NT3 in susceptibility to ADHD. Am J Med Genet Part B 144B(3):375378.
  • Szobot CM, Roman T, Hutz MH, Genro JP, Shih MC, Hoexter MQ, Júnior N, Pechansky F, Bressan RA, Rohde LA. 2011. Molecular imaging genetics of methylphenidate response in ADHD and substance use comorbidity. Synapse 65(2):154159.
  • ter Laak MA, Temmink AH, Koeken A, van't Veer NE, van Hattum PR, Cobbaert CM. 2010. Recognition of impaired atomoxetine metabolism because of low CYP2D6 activity. Pediatr Neurol 43(3):159162.
  • Thakur GA, Grizenko N, Sengupta SM, Schmitz N, Joober R. 2010. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and short term behavioral response to methylphenidate in children with ADHD. BMC Psychiatry 10:50.
  • Thakur GA, Sengupta SM, Grizenko N, Choudhry Z, Joober R. 2012. Comprehensive phenotype/genotype analyses of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) in ADHD: Relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy. PLoS ONE 7(11):e49616.
  • Tost H, Bilek E, Meyer-Lindenberg A. 2012. Brain connectivity in psychiatric imaging genetics. NeuroImage 62:22502260.
  • van der Meulen EM, Bakker SC, Pauls DL, Oteman N, Kruitwagen CL, Pearson PL, Sinke RJ, Buitelaar JK. 2005. High sibling correlation on methylphenidate response but no association with DAT1-10R homozygosity in Dutch sibpairs with ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46(10):10741080.
  • Vaughan BS, Kratochvil CJ. 2006. Pharmacotherapy of ADHD in young children. Psychiatry (Edgmont) 3(8):3645.
  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Molina PE, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Gifford A, Ding YS, Wong C, Pappas NR, Zhu W, Swanson JM. 2003. Cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate in humans are associated with increases of dopamine in brain and of epinephrine in plasma. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166(3):264270.
  • Walther DJ, Peter JU, Bashammakh S, Hörtnagl H, Voits M, Fink H, Bader M. 2003. Synthesis of serotonin by a second tryptophan hydroxylase isoform. Science 299(5603):76.
  • Weinshilboum R. 2003. Inheritance and drug response. N Engl J Med 348(6):529537.
  • Wermter AK, Laucht M, Schimmelmann BG, Banaschweski T, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Rietschel M, Becker K. 2010. From nature versus nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene × environment interaction in mental disorders. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19(3):199210.
  • Willcutt EG. 2012. The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Neurotherapeutics 9(3):490499.
  • Winsberg BG, Comings DE. 1999. Association of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) with poor methylphenidate response. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38(12):14741477.
  • Yang L, Qian Q, Liu L, Li H, Faraone SV, Wang Y. 2012. Adrenergic neurotransmitter system transporter and receptor genes associated with atomoxetine response in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children. J Neural Transm
  • Yang L, Wang YF, Li J, Faraone SV. 2004. Association of norepinephrine transporter gene with methylphenidate response. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:11541158.
  • Zeni CP, Guimarães AP, Polanczyk GV, Genro JP, Roman T, Hutz MH, Rohde LA. 2007. No significant association between response to methylphenidate and genes of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a sample of Brazilian children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet Part B 144B(3):391394.
  • Zhu HJ, Wang JS, DeVane CL, Williard RL, Donovan JL, Middaugh LD, Gibson BB, Patrick KS, Markowitz JS. 2006. The role of the polymorphic efflux transporter P-glycoprotein on the brain accumulation of d-methylphenidate and d-amphetamine. Drug Metab Dispos 34(7):11161121.