Jordan W. Smoller is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Director of the Psychiatric Genetics Program in Mood and Anxiety Disorders in the Outpatient Division of the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Psychiatry.
Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder
Article first published online: 8 AUG 2003
Copyright © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics
Special Issue: The Genetics of Bipolar Disorder
Volume 123C, Issue 1, pages 48–58, 15 November 2003
How to Cite
Smoller, J. W. and Finn, C. T. (2003), Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder. Am. J. Med. Genet., 123C: 48–58. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.20013
- Issue published online: 29 OCT 2003
- Article first published online: 8 AUG 2003
- family studies;
- twin studies;
- adoption studies;
- bipolar disorder;
- genetic epidemiology
Family, twin, and adoption studies have been essential in defining the genetic epidemiology of bipolar disorder over the past several decades. Family studies have documented that first-degree relatives of affected individuals have an excess risk of the disorder, while twin studies (and to a lesser extent, adoption studies) suggest that genes are largely responsible for this familial aggregation. We review these studies, including the magnitude of familial risk and heritability estimates, efforts to identify familial subtypes of bipolar disorder, and the implications of family/genetic data for validating nosologic boundaries. Taken together, these studies indicate that bipolar disorder is phenotypically and genetically complex. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.