Physiotherapy, rehabilitation, and orthopedic surgery are the mainstay of treatment in moderate to severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Nevertheless, medical treatment with bisphosphonates can bring significant additional improvements. Benefits include decreased pain, lower fracture incidence, and better mobility. Among the various bisphosphonates, intravenous pamidronate has been studied in most detail. It is unclear whether oral bisphosphonates are as effective as intravenous pamidronate. As the effect of bisphosphonates on the skeleton is largest during growth, it appears logical to start medical therapy of OI patients as early as possible. However, the optimal treatment regimen and the long-term consequences of pamidronate treatment in children are currently unknown. Given these uncertainties, treatment with bisphosphonates during growth should be reserved for patients who have significant clinical problems, such as vertebral compression fractures or long bone deformities. Medical therapies other than bisphosphonates, such as growth hormone and parathyroid hormone, play a minor role at present. Gene-based therapy currently remains in the early stages of preclinical research. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.