SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • cilia;
  • cystic kidney disease;
  • retinal dystrophy;
  • polydactyly;
  • obesity;
  • Wnt;
  • Shh;
  • PDGF

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

Motile cilia have long been known to play a role in processes such as cell locomotion and fluid movement whereas the functions of primary cilia have remained obscure until recent years. To date, ciliary dysfunction has been shown to be causally linked to a number of clinical manifestations that characterize the group of human disorders known as ciliopathies. This classification reflects a common or shared cellular basis and implies that it is possible to associate a series of different human conditions with ciliary dysfunction, which allows gaining insight into the cellular defect in disorders of unknown etiology solely based on phenotypic observations. Furthermore, to date we know that the cilium participates in a number of biological processes ranging from chemo- and mechanosensation to the transduction of a growing list of paracrine signaling cascades that are critical for the development and maintenance of different tissues and organs. Consequently, the primary cilium has been identified as a key structure necessary to regulate and maintain cellular and tissue homeostasis and thus its study is providing significant information to understand the pathogenesis of the different phenotypes that characterize these human conditions. Finally, the similarities between different ciliopathies at the phenotypic level are proving to be due to their shared cellular defect and also their common genetic basis. To this end, recent studies are showing that mutations in a given ciliary gene often appear involved in the pathogenesis of more than one clinical entity, complicating their genetic dissection, and hindering our ability to generate accurate genotype–phenotype correlations. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


INTRODUCTION

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

Cilia are evolutionary conserved organelles that have been recognized for more than a 100 years [Zimmermann, 1898]. These antenna-like structures can be classified in two main types according to their ultrastructure and their capacity to move: motile and immotile/primary cilia. While cilia immotility has long been associated with distinct clinical manifestations, it has been only recently realized the role that the primary cilium is playing in the pathogenesis of several human conditions. Consistent with their broad cellular distribution, their evolutionary conservation, and their emerging role in the transduction of important paracrine signaling pathways, perturbations in the function of primary cilia are being implicated in a wide spectrum of human diseases: the ciliopathies. This classification includes a number of disorders that range from polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and nephronophthisis to broad pleiotropic syndromes [Badano et al., 2006b; Sharma et al., 2008]. Here we review the basic biology of cilia and the multiple roles that have been ascribed to these organelles to highlight how this knowledge is shedding light into our understanding of the cellular and genetic basis of this group of human disorders.

THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

Structure and Classification

Cilia and flagella extend from the cellular membrane of non-proliferating cells and are composed of a microtubule axoneme that emanates from a basal body, a structure composed of nine microtubule triplets that derives from the mother centriole of the centrosome [Rosenbaum and Witman, 2002]. In general, motile cilia axonemes are composed of nine outer microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair in a 9 + 2 configuration. Inner and outer dynein arms are responsible for generating force whereas radial spokes regulate the direction of ciliary beating. Primary cilia generally lack the central pair of microtubules (9 + 0 configuration) and the inner dynein arms (Fig. 1A). However, this classification is simplistic and motile 9 + 0 and immotile 9 + 2 cilia can be found. For example, 9 + 0 cilia in the embryonic node move in a vortical fashion to generate extra-embryonic fluid flow (see below) and the immotile kinocilium in the inner ear has a 9 + 2 configuration.

thumbnail image

Figure 1. Basic ciliary structure. A: Schematic representation of a cilium and cross-section of a basal body composed of microtubule triplets and a “9 + 2” and a “9 + 0” axoneme showing the position of dynein arms and radial spokes needed for force generation and coordination. Along the outer microtubule doublets of the axoneme, molecular motors transport IFT particles. B: Ciliogenesis is tightly linked to cell cycle progression occurring in G1/G0. Mouse kidney cells (IMCD3) are shown where γ- and acetylated tubulin have been stained in green showing centrioles and the axoneme. DAPI has been used to stain DNA.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Since protein synthesis does not occur inside cilia, cells have developed a specialized mechanism named intraflagellar transport (IFT), first described in the flagellated single-celled green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, necessary for the formation, maintenance and function of cilia

Since protein synthesis does not occur inside cilia, cells have developed a specialized mechanism named intraflagellar transport (IFT), first described in the flagellated single-celled green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, necessary for the formation, maintenance and function of cilia

[Kozminski et al., 1993]. IFT requires the coordinated action of structural, adaptor, and molecular motors to move IFT particles in and out of the cilium (anterograde and retrograde movement, respectively). Anterograde movement is achieved through kinesin-II, a heterotrimeric complex formed by two motor subunits, KIF3A and KIF3B in vertebrates, and a non-motor subunit called KAP. Interestingly, it has been shown that other kinesins can also participate in the process although their exact role needs to be determined. The molecular motor responsible for retrograde transport is cytoplasmic dynein 2, which in turn is composed of heavy, intermediate and light chains [Fig. 1A; for an in depth review of IFT see Rosenbaum and Witman, 2002; Pedersen and Rosenbaum, 2008].

IFT is critical to maintain the functionality of cilia and thus its disruption or impairment is causally linked to different human phenotypes and conditions that will be discussed in following sections. One particular cell type that heavily depends on intact IFT is the photoreceptor and consequently, retinal degeneration is a characteristic phenotypic outcome of ciliary dysfunction [Table I; for an in depth review see Insinna and Besharse, 2008]. The outer segment of the photoreceptors derives from the plasma membrane of a modified primary cilium that also connects it with the inner segment. Therefore, both the formation and maintenance of the photoreceptor outer segment requires IFT and defects in this process result in photoreceptor cell death and retinal degeneration in a manner that is proportional to the disruption in IFT. For example, mutations in the IFT proteins IFT88 or IFT57 which abrogate or reduce IFT respectively, result in either lost or short outer segments [Pazour et al., 2002a; Krock and Perkins, 2008]. Similarly, conditional depletion of Kif3a in photoreceptors results in the accumulation of proteins normally transported into the outer segment, such as opsin and arrestin, leading to cell death [Marszalek et al., 2000].

Table I. Principal Phenotypes Observed in the Ciliopathies
 PKDNPHPMKKSSLSNEVCJATDOFDALMSJSBBSMKS
  1. PKD, polycystic kidney disease; NPHP, nephronophthisis; MKKS, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome; SLSN, Senior–Løken syndrome; EVC, Ellis-van Creveld; JATD, Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy; OFD, orofaciodigital syndrome; ALMS, Alström syndrome; JS, Joubert syndrome/Cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome; BBS, Bardet–Biedl syndrome; MKS, Meckel–Gruber syndrome; CNS, Central nervous system.

CNS malformations    
Cystic kidney  
Diabetes         
Gonadal malformations       
Heart disease       
Hepatic dysfunction  
Mental retardation/Developmental delay     
Obesity         
Polydactyly    
Pulmonary dysfunction          
Retinal degeneration      
Left–right asymmetry defects     
Skeletal defects        

Ciliogenesis and Cell Cycle

Cilia are post-mitotic structures that are present while cells are in G0/G1 and the beginning of the S phase, before the centrioles are needed to organize the mitotic spindle (Fig. 1B). Importantly, the tight link between cilia formation/disassembly and cell cycle progression not only relies in the availability of centrioles but also is supported by the specific activity of centrosomal proteins participating in the control of ciliogenesis

Cilia are post-mitotic structures that are present while cells are in G0/G1 and the beginning of the S phase, before the centrioles are needed to organize the mitotic spindle (Fig. 1B). Importantly, the tight link between cilia formation/disassembly and cell cycle progression not only relies in the availability of centrioles but also is supported by the specific activity of centrosomal proteins participating in the control of ciliogenesis

[reviewed by Santos and Reiter, 2008]. For example, CP110 is a protein involved in centrosome duplication and cytokinesis that has been shown to inhibit ciliogenesis through an interaction with Cep97 and CEP290, a protein that is mutated in several ciliopathies [Table II; Spektor et al., 2007; Tsang et al., 2008]. Depletion of either Cep97 or CP110 uncouples the ciliary cycle and cell division leading to the formation of cilia in proliferating cells while overexpression of CP110 in serum-starved cells inhibits ciliogenesis [Spektor et al., 2007].

Table II. List of Selected Ciliary Genes/Proteins and Their Link to Ciliopathies
GeneProteinFunctional informationSyndrome
  1. NPHP, nephronophthisis; MKKS, McKusick–Kaufman syndrome; SLSN, Senior–Løken syndrome; EVC, Ellis-van Creveld; JATD, Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy; OFD, orofaciodigital syndrome; ALMS, Alström syndrome; JS, Joubert syndrome; BBS, Bardet–Biedl syndrome; MKS, Meckel–Gruber syndrome; CE, convergence and extension; IFT, intraflagellar transport; Hh, hedgehog; Shh, sonic hedgehog.

NPHP1NephrocystinBasal body/cilia, cell–cell junctions. Regulate ciliary accessNPHP, SLSN, JS
NPHP2InversinCentrosomes/basal body/cilia, cell–cell junctions. Involved in Wnt signallingNPHP
NPHP3Nephrocystin-3Cilia. Suggested role in Wnt signalingNPHP, MKS-like
NPHP4Nephrocystin-4Centrosomes/basal body/cilia, also actin cytoskeletonNPHP, SLSN
NPHP5/IQCB1Nephrocystin-5Primary cilia in renal tubular epithelial cells and retinal cellsNPHP, SLSN
CEP290/NPHP6CEP290Centrosome/basal body/cilia; ciliogenesisNPHP, BBS, MKS, JS
NPHP7/GLIS2GLIS2Possible role in Shh signallingNPHP
RPGRIP1L/NPHP8RPGRIP1LBasal bodies; possible role in Shh signallingNPHP, MKS, JS
NPHP9/NEK8NEK8Cell cycle regulationNPHP
EVCEVCChondrocyte cilia; involved in Hh signalingEVC
IFT80IFT80Basal body/axoneme; IFT particle. Possible role in Shh signallingJATD
BBS1BBS1Centrosome/basal body; IFT and intracellular transportBBS
BBS2BBS2Centrosome/basal bodyBBS, MKS-like
BBS3BBS3Member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins; possible role in ciliary transportBBS
BBS4BBS4Centrosome/basal body. Pericentriolar organizationBBS, MKS-like
BBS5BBS5Basal body; possible role in ciliogenesisBBS
BBS6/MKKSBBS6Centrosome/basal body; group II chaperonin-like protein; possible role in cell cycleBBS, MKKS, MKS-like
BBS7BBS7Basal body; possible role in IFTBBS
BBS8BBS8Centrosome/basal body; possible role in IFTBBS
BBS9BBS9Possible role in adipogenesisBBS
BBS10BBS10Group II chaperonin-like proteinBBS
BBS11BBS11Similar to E3 ubiquitin ligase; possible role in proteasome degradationBBS
BBS12BBS12Group II chaperonin-like proteinBBS
MKS1MKS1Centrosome/basal body; ciliogenesisMKS, BBS
MKS3MeckelinCilia and plasma membrane in ciliated cell-lines; ciliogenesisMKS, JS, BBS, NPHP
CC2D2ACC2D2ABasal body, ciliogenesisMKS, JS
AHl1JouberinCentrosome/basal body/cilia; cell–cell junctionsJS, NPHP
ALMS1ALMS1Centrosome/basal body; ciliary assemblyALMS
OFD1OFD1Centrosome/basal body. Implicated in left–right axis specification and CE movementsOFD
OFD2OFD2/cenexinFormation of distal/subdistal appendages of mother centrioles and ciliogenesisOFD

Cells generally reabsorb the cilium in order to divide and thus the disassembly of cilia is also tightly regulated. Aurora A (AurA), a centrosomal protein involved in the regulation of mitotic entry, has been shown to interact with the focal adhesion scaffolding protein HEF1, to facilitate ciliary disassembly by promoting deacetylation of axonemal tubulin through the histone deacetylase HDAC6 [Pugacheva et al., 2007]. Another example is the family of NIMA-related protein kinases (Nrks or Neks) which have been postulated to play a role in the coordination between cell cycle and cilia [Parker et al., 2007]. Importantly, mutations in Nek1 and Nek8 are responsible for two mouse models of cystic kidney disease, a hallmark feature of ciliary dysfunction [Table I; Upadhya et al., 2000; Liu et al., 2002].

As we will discuss in following sections, cilia can regulate cell proliferation through the modulation of different signaling cascades. In addition, several ciliary proteins appear to directly affect cell proliferation through putative extraciliary roles. For example, depletion of IFT27 in Chlamydomonas results in the expected loss of flagella but also cytokinesis defects [Qin et al., 2007]. In mammalian cell lines, overexpression of IFT88, which remains associated with the centrosome through the cell cycle, leads to cell cycle arrest regulating the G1–S transition. Furthermore, it has been shown that IFT88 inhibits the RNA polymerase II binding protein Che1 which is no longer able to suppress retinoblastoma (Rb), a negative regulator of the cell cycle [Robert et al., 2007]. Interestingly, ciliary dysfunction in vivo does not seem to result in marked cell proliferation defects nor it is associated with oncogenic phenotypes suggesting that there is redundancy in the system and cell cycle checkpoints are not largely affected.

CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

Motile Cilia Dysfunction: Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, Hydrocephalus and Left–Right Determination

Ciliary immotility in the respiratory tract and the sperm flagellum has long been associated with a defined set of human phenotypes. Afzelius 1976 observed cilia lacking dynein arms in patients with immotile sperm and respiratory problems, characteristic phenotypes in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400) [Afzelius, 1976]. To date we know that mutations in either of several genes encoding different components of the highly complex machinery required to generate and coordinate ciliary movement, can cause this condition (Fig. 1A). For example, mutations in genes encoding for dynein intermediate and heavy chains, such as DNAI1, DNAH5, and DNAH11, and other structural ciliary defects have been found in PCD patients [Pennarun et al., 1999; Bartoloni et al., 2002; Olbrich et al., 2002; Sharma et al., 2008]. While sinusitis, infertility and bronchiectasis were, to a degree, expected consequences from ciliary immotility in heavily ciliated tissues, the cellular basis of hydrocephalus, a condition also affecting PCD patients, was not fully understood. Interestingly, it is now known that ciliary beating in the ependymal cells lining the brain ventricles generates a flow of cerebrospinal fluid that is necessary to maintain an open aqueduct and mutations in the axonemal dynein heavy chain Mdnah5 in mice result in defective ependymal flow and hydrocephalus [Ibanez-Tallon et al., 2004]. Furthermore, the Chlamydomonas ortholog of Hydin, mutated in the congenital hydrocephalus hy3 mouse, is a component of the central pair of microtubules that is required for motility of the flagellum and cilia in hydin mutant mice have been shown to present structural axonemal defects and seriously compromised motility [Lechtreck and Witman, 2007; Lechtreck et al., 2008].

Another hallmark feature of ciliary dysfunction is defective determination of the left–right axis of symmetry (Table I), a characteristic feature of Kartagener syndrome (KS; OMIM 244400) which is defined by PCD and situs inversus. In vertebrates, organs are normally distributed asymmetrically between the left and right (LR) side of the body and situs inversus and heterotaxy denote a complete reversal or partial mis-positioning of organs, respectively. Interestingly, it has been shown that the first asymmetries in LR are established through the activity of motile primary cilia in the LR organizer: the embryonic node in the mouse or Kupffer's vesicle in zebrafish for example. Using Kif3b mutant mice Nonaka and colleagues demonstrated that motile primary cilia in the node are responsible for generating a leftward flow of extra-embryonic fluid, the nodal flow, which represents the earliest recognizable LR asymmetry in the developing embryo [Nonaka et al., 1998]. Furthermore, an artificially created flow applied over mouse embryos in culture is able to determine the LR axis in both wild type embryos and mutants with immotile cilia [Nonaka et al., 2002]. Additionally, mutations in the left–right dynein (lrd) gene, in the mouse model inversus viscerum (iv/iv), and in the axonemal dynein heavy chain 5 (DnaHC5), result in immotile cilia and randomization of body situs [Supp et al., 1997; Okada et al., 1999; Olbrich et al., 2002; McGrath et al., 2003].

Two main models of LR determination have been proposed although neither is sufficient to satisfactorily explain the diverse LR defects observed in patients and animal models. The first model postulates that the leftward flow is sensed by mechanosensory cilia on the right side of the node that upon bending, initiate a Ca2+ signaling cascade that is translated into differential gene expression of Nodal and Lefty [reviewed by Basu and Brueckner, 2008]. Supporting this model, it has been shown that there are two types of primary nodal cilia: a group of cilia localized in the center of the node that express the axonemal dynein lrd and can generate fluid flow through a clockwise rotational movement and a second type of non-motile cilia that sense the mechanical stimulus in a process that requires polycystin-2 (PC2), a protein mutated in human polycystic kidney disease [see below; McGrath et al., 2003]. The second model is based on a flow-generated morphogen gradient that could initiate the LR specification cascade [Okada et al., 2005]. Interestingly, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling can regulate the release of nodal vesicular parcels (NVPs), membrane covered particles that are enriched for Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid. These NVPs are transported by nodal flow and are thought to release their cargo on the left wall of the node to initiate signaling [Tanaka et al., 2005].

Non-Motile Primary Cilia and Their Link to Human Disease

In contrast to motile cilia, the association between the primary cilium and human disease had to wait until recent years and a key model has undoubtedly been the Oak Ridge polycystic kidney (orpk) mouse.

In contrast to motile cilia, the association between the primary cilium and human disease had to wait until recent years and a key model has undoubtedly been the Oak Ridge polycystic kidney (orpk) mouse.

Orpk mice bear a hypomorphic allele of Tg737 which encodes the mouse ortholog of Chlamydomonas IFT88, a protein that localizes to basal bodies and cilia and is involved in IFT. Interestingly, both motile and primary cilia in Tg737orpk animals are structurally defective and shorter than normal cilia while complete Tg737 nulls lack cilia and present with neural tube problems, LR defects and growth arrest during embryogenesis [Moyer et al., 1994; Yoder et al., 1995; Murcia et al., 2000; Pazour et al., 2000; Taulman et al., 2001]. The orpk mouse is a model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD; OMIM 263200), a condition that presents in early childhood and is characterized by renal cysts and liver fibrosis providing a direct link between primary cilia and human disease.

The Role of Cilia in the Pathogenesis of Cystic Kidney Disease

Cystic diseases of the kidney (CDKs) are a group of human genetic disorders characterized by the formation of renal cysts that range from PKD to syndromes in which the formation of cysts in the kidney is a feature of a broader spectrum of clinical manifestations. A number of mouse models and the identification of genes causing CDKs in humans have further supported the link between ciliary dysfunction and cystogenesis. For example cystin, the protein encoded by the Cys1 gene, which is mutated in the congenital polycystic kidney mouse (cpk), localizes to cilia in renal epithelial cells [Yoder et al., 2002]. Also, the absence of cilia in the renal epithelia of mice in which Kif3A has been conditionally targeted correlates with the formation of renal cysts [Lin et al., 2003].

Studies in human conditions such as autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD and ARPKD) have also supported a ciliary role during cystogenesis. Mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2, encoding the proteins polycystin-1 (PC1) and 2 (PC2), respectively, are the most frequent genetic alterations found in ADPKD [Consortium TEPKD, 1994; Mochizuki et al., 1996]. PC1 is a large transmembrane protein that interacts with PC2, a nonselective cation channel, to form a Ca2+ channel that localizes to primary cilia in the renal epithelium [Qian et al., 1997; Tsiokas et al., 1997; Hanaoka et al., 2000; Gonzalez-Perrett et al., 2001; Yoder et al., 2002; Pazour et al., 2002b]. ARPKD is caused by mutations in PKHD1, which also encodes a ciliary protein named polyductin/fibrocystin [Onuchic et al., 2002; Ward et al., 2002, 2003]. Although the exact function of polyductin/fibrocystin is still not known, it has been suggested that it plays a role in collecting duct cell differentiation by interacting with PC2 and regulating its function [Mai et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2008]. Importantly, mutant Pkhd1 mice present with hepatic, pancreatic and renal defects and cilia in these animals are significantly shorter than in controls [Woollard et al., 2007].

In renal tubules, PC1 and PC2 have been proposed to mediate Ca2+ signaling upon ciliary bending, similarly to the putative role of cilia and PC2 in LR determination [Praetorius and Spring, 2001; Pennekamp et al., 2002; McGrath et al., 2003; Nauli et al., 2003]. Additionally, PC1 positive exosome-like vesicles (ELV), also enriched for various signaling molecules, have been found in urine and attached to renal epithelia cilia leading to the speculation that a model similar to the nodal vesicular parcel is also operating in the kidney [Pisitkun et al., 2004; Harris and Torres, 2009; Hogan et al., 2009]. However, two independent groups have shown that the cystic kidney phenotype resulting from disruption of Pkd1, Tg737, or Kif3a depends on the developmental time at which these genes are inactivated [Davenport et al., 2007; Piontek et al., 2007]. Using mice with a conditional Pkd1 allele, Piontek et al. have shown that the controlled inactivation of Pkd1 before postnatal day 13 results in cysts in 3 weeks whereas animals in which the gene is disrupted at day 14 or later develop cysts after 5 months [Piontek et al., 2007]. These data led the authors to suggest that the homeostasis of the tissue might present different requirements of ciliary mediated flow sensing during development or in the adult kidney and also that other mechanisms are likely involved in determining the onset and progression of cystic kidney disease [Davenport et al., 2007; Piontek et al., 2007].

Ciliary Dysfunction: A Unifying Defect in Cystic Kidney Disease

The link between cilia and cystogenesis is not restricted to PKD but rather it has been postulated to be the unifying cellular defect underlying most if not all CDKs [Watnick and Germino, 2003; Hildebrandt and Otto, 2005]. This concept is supported by studies in nephronophthisis (NPHP; OMIM 256100), an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease and the most frequent genetic cause of end stage renal disease in children and young individuals. It is characterized by the formation of corticomedulary cysts, interstitial fibrosis and renal insufficiency. In addition, NPHP can present associated with extra-renal phenotypes such as retinal degeneration in Senior–Løken syndrome (SLSN; OMIM 266900) and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia in Joubert syndrome (JS; OMIM 213300). NPHP is a genetically heterogeneous disorder for which nine genes (NPHP1-9) have been cloned to date [Hildebrandt et al., 2009 and references within]. Initially, the characterization of the proteins encoded by NPHP1 and NPHP2/INVS, nephrocystin-1 and inversin respectively, show that these proteins localize to primary cilia in renal tubular epithelial cells where they form a complex with β-tubulin

the characterization of the proteins encoded by NPHP1 and NPHP2/INVS, nephrocystin-1 and inversin, respectively, show that these proteins localize to primary cilia in renal tubular epithelial cells where they form a complex with β-tubulin

[Otto et al., 2003]. Overall, the characterization of all the nephrocystins has revealed a cellular localization pattern involving the primary cilium and the basal body [Table II; reviewed by Hildebrandt et al., 2009].

Ciliary Dysfunction Can Cause a Broad Range of Phenotypes

In addition to cystic kidney disease, LR patterning defects and retinal degeneration, ciliary dysfunction can result in a broad spectrum of disorders that range from PKD to highly pleiotropic syndromes: the ciliopathies [Table I; Badano et al., 2006a; Sharma et al., 2008]. This classification is based in the fact that a common, or at least overlapping, cellular defect is central in the etiology of the different clinical entities. Therefore, this concept per se assigns levels of complexity not previously recognized or expected for a once thought vestigial organelle and poses the question of why alterations in a particular cellular structure can give rise to the numerous, sometimes apparently unrelated, phenotypes that define and characterize the ciliopathies.

A first clue to answer this question comes from the observation that virtually all cell types in the human body are either ciliated or have the capacity to become so (http://www.bowserlab.org/primarycilia/ciliumpage2.htm). Thus, ciliary dysfunction will likely affect numerous tissues and organs, albeit to different degrees, depending on the specific ciliary defect, the pattern of expression of the altered ciliary gene and the functional dependency of the tissue with respect to the cilium. Second, several ciliary proteins likely play important extraciliary roles adding another layer of complexity and complicating the dissection of the specific role/s of cilia in the pathogenesis of different ciliopathy phenotypes.

several ciliary proteins likely play important extraciliary roles adding another layer of complexity and complicating the dissection of the specific role/s of cilia in the pathogenesis of different ciliopathy phenotypes.

Finally, recent data have shown that cilia actively participate in the transduction of key signaling cascades that participate during development and tissue homeostasis thus broadening the spectrum of phenotypes that can be caused by their dysfunction.

CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

Understanding the Cellular Basis of Cystogenesis and Other Phenotypes: Wnt Signaling

Provided the initial link between a cellular defect and a particular phenotype, the challenge becomes to understand the exact biological process that is being perturbed. Regarding the role of cilia in cystogenesis, important insight came from studies showing that NPHP2/inversin is critical to regulate Wnt signaling [Simons et al., 2005]. The Wnts are a family of secreted factors that bind Frizzled receptors to activate distinct signaling cascades depending on the specific Wnt activator, the receptor and also the activity of Disheveled (Dvl), a molecular switch between signaling cascades. Canonical Wnt signaling acts through β-catenin which drives the expression of a number of TCF-LEF1 responsive genes to control proliferation, cell cycle progression, differentiation and development [Grigoryan et al., 2008] while the non-canonical planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway provides cells with positional clues that are required for concerted multicellular actions such as convergence and extension (CE) movements during gastrulation and neurulation and the correct organization of tissues [Veeman et al., 2003]. Upon activation of the pathway, the subcellular localization of Dvl appears to determine the final signaling outcome whereby nuclear localization of Dvl, which represses the β-catenin destruction complex composed of GSK3β, APC and axin, is required for canonical Wnt signaling while membrane bound Dvl favors the PCP pathway [reviewed by Veeman et al., 2003; Gerdes and Katsanis, 2008]. Importantly, inversin has been shown to interact with Dvl targeting it for degradation and thus mutations in NPHP2 result in impaired control of the Wnt pathway and defective PCP [Simons et al., 2005]. Therefore, ciliary signaling, likely acting through proteins such as inversin, is thought to be required to modulate the balance between Wnt signaling pathways (Fig. 2A).

thumbnail image

Figure 2. Cilia-mediated Wnt signaling and its role in cystogenesis. A: Representation of a cilium/basal body, denoting their role in modulating the balance between canonical and non-canonical PCP signaling. In conditions of normal ciliary/basal body signaling, molecules such as Inversin (Inv) are required to favor PCP over canonical signaling by inhibiting Dvl and activating the β-catenin destruction complex composed of Axin, GSK3-β and APC. In contrast, perturbation of the basal body (i.e., mutations in the BBS proteins) or cilia-mediated signal transduction results in decreased PCP and the concomitant upregulation of canonical signaling. B: Representation of the model linking perturbed PCP signaling with cystogenesis where lack of positional clues due to perturbed PCP signaling results in aberrantly positioned mitotic spindles leading to tubule dilation as opposed to extension [adapted from Germino 2005].

Download figure to PowerPoint

These data provided important insight into the cellular basis of different phenotypes associated with ciliary dysfunction. In the mouse model inversion of embryonic turning (inv) where inversin is disrupted, nodal cilia present defective orientation, which results in abnormal movement and decreased nodal flow explaining the characteristic LR defects of these animals [Okada et al., 1999, 2005]. Importantly, the position and posterior tilt of the cilium in nodal cells, likely requiring PCP signaling, have been shown to be critical for proper beating and flow generation [Nonaka et al., 2005; Okada et al., 2005]. Regarding cystic kidney disease, the Wnt pathway plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of the kidney where it is required for the induction of the metanephric mesenchyme to develop the proximal portions of the nephron and for the regulation of cell proliferation [Simons and Walz, 2006; Bacallao and McNeill, 2009]. Interestingly, both PCP defects and hyperactivity of canonical Wnt signaling in transgenic mice overexpressing β-catenin can result in the formation of cysts [Saadi-Kheddouci et al., 2001; Simons et al., 2005]. One mechanistic model linking PCP and cystogenesis is based on the observation that a great percentage of dividing cells in the renal tubules orient their mitotic spindles parallel to the lumen and thus the net result of cell division is tubular elongation and not dilation [Fig. 2B; Fischer et al., 2006]. Importantly, misoriented mitotic spindles have been observed in both mouse and rat models of cystic kidney disease [Fischer et al., 2006].

Although the nature of the signal(s) that cilia are sensing to regulate Wnt signaling is still not entirely clear, studies on Bardet–Biedl syndrome

Although the nature of the signal(s) that cilia are sensing to regulate Wnt signaling is still not entirely clear, studies on Bardet–Biedl syndrome

(BBS; OMIM 209900) support the role of cilia and basal bodies as critical players to maintain the correct balance between different Wnt signaling outcomes

support the role of cilia and basal bodies as critical players to maintain the correct balance between different Wnt signaling outcomes

[Fig. 2A; review by Gerdes and Katsanis, 2008]. BBS is a disorder characterized by obesity, mental retardation, polydactyly, retinal degeneration and renal malformations including the formation of cysts [Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009]. To date, 14 BBS genes (BBS1-12, MKS1, NPHP6/CEP290) have been identified [Stoetzel et al., 2007; Leitch et al., 2008 and references within]. The BBS proteins localize primarily to centrosomes and basal bodies and several of them can be found forming a complex, the BBSome, that localizes to the pericentriolar region and the ciliary membrane and has been implicated in ciliogenesis [Ansley et al., 2003; Fan et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2004, 2005; Li et al., 2004; Badano et al., 2006a; Nachury et al., 2007; Loktev et al., 2008]. Interestingly, depletion of different BBS proteins in mice and zebrafish result in characteristic PCP phenotypes [reviewed by Wang and Nathans, 2007]. Bbs6−/−, bbs1−/− and bbs4−/− mice present with exencephaly, misoriented stereociliary bundles in the cochlea and open eyelids, a phenotype thought to be caused by defective convergence of epithelial cells, similar to the defect underlying neural tube closure. In zebrafish, depletion of bbs proteins result in failure to achieve the concerted migration and intercalation of cells in the embryonic midline that characterize CE movements during gastrulation and thus, mutant embryos present with a shorter body axis, defective somitic definition and abnormally shaped notochords. In addition, a genetic interaction between the bbs genes and core PCP genes such as vangl2 was also demonstrated [Ross et al., 2005; Badano et al., 2006a].

More recently, it has been shown that the BBS proteins modulate the balance between canonical Wnt and PCP signaling whereby loss of BBS function leads to PCP defects and the concomitant upregulation of canonical Wnt through the stabilization of β-catenin [Gerdes et al., 2007]. Interestingly, depletion of BBS proteins leads to altered proteasome activity in Hek293 cells suggesting that protein clearance defects could at least contribute to the accumulation of β-catenin although this possibility needs further evaluation [Gerdes et al., 2007]. Importantly, this increased functional complexity associated with the BBS proteins might be a consequence of their potential ciliary and extraciliary roles. For example, depletion of BBS4 in mammalian cells results in structural and functional centrosomal defects [Kim et al., 2004]. Importantly, in addition to its role during cell division, the centrosome has been shown to be important in cell migration and protein clearance and thus, perturbation of the BBS proteins might affect extra-ciliary processes likely relevant to the pathogenesis of this syndrome and other ciliopathies [Badano et al., 2005]. Similarly, ALMS1, the protein mutated in Alström syndrome (ALMS; OMIM 203800), also localizes to basal bodies and centrosomes [Hearn et al., 2005]. Furthermore, complete knockdown of Alms1 in mice results in ciliogenesis defects [Li et al., 2007]. The ALMS phenotype is highly reminiscent of BBS in that is characterized by obesity, retinal dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, diabetes but present with sensorineural deafness and no polydactyly.

Wnt misregulation is not exclusive of BBS and NPHP given that it is characteristic of other ciliary mutants. In Kif3a−/− mice, canonical Wnt signaling is increased [Corbit et al., 2008] and in vitro reporter assays to quantify β-catenin activity showed that depletion of KIF3A and different BBS proteins results in cells that are hyper-responsive to Wnt stimuli [Gerdes et al., 2007]. Also, Ift88orpk/orpk and Ofd1−/− mice present similar Wnt defects [Corbit et al., 2008]. Ofd1 is the mouse ortholog of OFD1, the gene mutated in orofaciodigital syndrome type I (OFD1; OMIM 311200), a ciliopathy characterized by malformations involving the oral cavity, face and digits that often present with central nervous system defects and cystic kidney disease [Ferrante et al., 2001].

Shh Signaling Defects in the Ciliopathies

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates morphogenesis, patterning and growth of different tissues and organs and therefore several ciliopathy phenotypes, including polydactyly, neural tube and brain defects

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates morphogenesis, patterning and growth of different tissues and organs and therefore several ciliopathy phenotypes, including polydactyly, neural tube and brain defects

(Table I), can be consequences of alterations in this pathway.

can be consequences of alterations in this pathway.

In mammals, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Desert hedgehog (Dhh) compose a family of Hh secreted signaling proteins that bind the Patched receptor (Ptc) to activate different signaling cascades. Upon binding of Shh, patched 1 (Ptc1) is inactivated and Smoothened (Smo) is released to block the processing of Gli3 into its repressor form (Gli3R) thus enabling Gli-mediated target gene regulation [Varjosalo and Taipale, 2008]. Although the mechanism is not completely understood, the subcellular localization of the different components of the pathway is important for activity and the cilium and IFT appear as key components of the signaling apparatus (Fig. 3).

thumbnail image

Figure 3. The cilium and sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. In the absence of Shh (left), the receptor patched (Ptc1) is localized to the cilium, preventing the ciliary accumulation of smoothened (Smo) and thus favoring the processing of the Gli3 transcription factor into its transcriptional repressor form (Gli3R). Upon binding of Shh (right), Ptc1 is translocated outside the ciliary compartment allowing Smo to enter it in a process that depends on the anterograde IFT machinery. The ciliary accumulation of Smo in turn inhibits the processing of Gli into Gli3R while favors the processing of Gli3 into the activator form that is able to drive the expression of different target genes.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Initially, a mouse mutagenesis screen uncovered two novel embryonic patterning mutants, wimple (wim) and flexo (fxo), that presented characteristic Shh defects such as open neural tube, brain and limb abnormalities. Interestingly, the wim and fxo phenotypes, also characteristic of Kif3a mutants, were shown to be caused by a mutation in IFT172 and by a novel hypomorphic allele of IFT88, respectively [Huangfu et al., 2003]. Subsequently, it has been shown that Smo translocates into the cilium upon Shh stimulation and that ciliary localization is essential for Smo activity [Corbit et al., 2005; Aanstad et al., 2009]. Furthermore, Ptc1 localizes to the primary cilium and inhibits Smo activity by preventing its accumulation in the ciliary compartment. Upon Shh binding, Ptc1 is translocated out of the cilium and Smo is able to enter it in a process that requires β-arrestins and Kif3a [Fig. 3; Rohatgi et al., 2007; Kovacs et al., 2008]. Additionally, Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 localize to cilia and loss of IFT88 leads to altered Gli2 and Gli3 processing [Haycraft et al., 2005].

In general, ciliogenesis and normal ciliary function appear to be critical to maintain Hh signaling as demonstrated by different IFT mutants that are characterized by severe developmental abnormalities attributable to defective Hh transduction [reviewed by Eggenschwiler and Anderson, 2007]. Briefly, mutations in IFT139, mutated in the alien mouse (aln), result in abnormal primary cilia and overactivation of Shh [Tran et al., 2008]. Mutations in the retrograde IFT dynein motor Dnchc2 and the basal body protein Ftm1 also result in abnormal Gli3 processing and mutant animals present with neural tube, LR and limb patterning defects [May et al., 2005; Vierkotten et al., 2007].

Importantly, defective Shh signaling can readily explain several of the phenotypes that characterize the ciliopathies and significant progress is being made to understand the role of this signaling cascade in their pathogenesis. Using conditional mutants to circumvent the lethality in complete ciliary nulls, it has been shown that ablation of Kif3a in the developing limb leads to aberrant Hh signaling (both Shh and Ihh) and results in polydactyly and altered digit patterning [Haycraft et al., 2007]. Similarly, depletion of Kif3a in cartilage results in skeletogenesis defects such as alterations in growth plate organization and excessive intramembranous ossification, defects that correlate with altered Hh signaling both on the level and field of expression of different components of the pathway [Koyama et al., 2007]. A skeletal dysplasia characterized by short ribs and limbs, polydactyly, and wrist bones malformations is Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC; OMIM 225500). Interestingly, EVC, mutated in this condition, encodes a protein that localizes to the base of chondrocyte cilia and is required for Ihh signaling in the growth plate [Ruiz-Perez et al., 2007]. Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD; OMIM 208500) is a rare chondrodysplasia where patients present a severely constricted thoracic cage and respiratory insufficiency often lethal in the first years of life. In addition, polydactyly, kidney/liver/pancreas cysts and retinal degeneration are also present in these patients. Importantly, mutations in IFT80 and DYNC2H1 (cytoplasmic dynein 2 heavy chain 1) are found in JATD [Beales et al., 2007; Dagoneau et al., 2009].

Ablation of either Ift88 or Kif3a in different neuronal populations have demonstrated the need for intact Shh signaling to maintain neural progenitor pools both in the dentate gyrus and the cerebellum [Chizhikov et al., 2007; Han et al., 2008; Spassky et al., 2008]. In the cerebellum, it has been shown that cilia-mediated Shh signaling is required to maintain and expand the pool of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Consequently, specific ablation of Ift88, Kif3a, or Smo in cerebellar GCPs results in reduced expansion of this group of cells and cerebellar hypoplasia [Chizhikov et al., 2007; Spassky et al., 2008]. Joubert syndrome (JS) is a group of disorders characterized by brain malformations that include cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and brainstem abnormalities, the molar tooth sign (MTS) in radiological examination. Patients can also present cystic renal disease, nephronophthisis, mental retardation, polydactyly, retinal degeneration, breathing problems and hypotonia among other clinical manifestations [reviewed by Parisi et al., 2007]. To date, mutations in seven genes have been causally linked to JS and ciliary dysfunction appears central in the etiology of JS as highlighted by the fact that several of the mutated proteins not only localize to basal bodies, centrosomes and cilia but also have been implicated in other ciliopathies as is the case for NPHP1, NPHP6/CEP290, MKS3/TMEM67, and NPHP8/RPGRIP1L [Table II; Parisi et al., 2007; Sharma et al., 2008 and references within]. Therefore, the cerebellar abnormalities that characterize JS, a common finding among other ciliopathies (Table I), might result from altered Shh signaling and the inability to maintain and expand the population of GCPs.

Other Signaling Cascades: PDGF Signaling and FGF-Mediated Control of Ciliogenesis

Another signaling pathway that has been recently shown to operate through the cilium is platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Stimulation of PDGFRαα (PDGFRα homodimer) by PDGFαα results in autophosphorylation events that lead to the activation of downstream signaling cascades mediated by AKT and Mek1/2-Erk1/2, that ultimately regulate cell cycle progression, survival and cell migration [reviewed by Christensen et al., 2008]. Interestingly, it has been shown that PDGFRα is upregulated during ciliogenesis and localizes to the primary cilium in NIH3T3 and mouse embryonic fibroblast arrested cells. Furthermore, the ciliary localization of PDGFRα is required for proper activation and embryonic fibroblasts derived from Ift88orpk mice failed both to upregulate the receptor and activate the pathway [Schneider et al., 2005].

While different signaling pathways require the cilium to operate, recent data indicates that other cascades might exert their actions, at least in part, through the direct regulation of ciliogenesis. Neugebauer and colleagues demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates ciliogenesis, cilia length and function in epithelial cells in zebrafish and Xenopus [Neugebauer et al., 2009]. Importantly, FGF regulates developmental processes such as LR determination and convergent extension movements during gastrulation [Meyers and Martin, 1999]. Inhibition of FGF signaling through either morpholino-mediated depletion of FGF receptor 1 (Fgfr1), dominant negative mutants or pharmacological agents led to a reduction in the length of cilia and perturbed fluid flow in Kupffer's vesicle and other ciliated cell types in zebrafish. Similarly, in Xenopus embryos, defective FGF signaling results in shorter cilia in the LR organizer, the gastrocoel roof plate. Interestingly, FGF signaling has been shown to regulate the pro-ciliogenic transcription factors foxj1 and rfx2 and ift88 [Neugebauer et al., 2009]. Furthermore, Hong and Dawid 2009 were able to show that Ier2 and Fibp1, two downstream targets of FGF signaling, regulate ciliogenesis in Kupffer's vesicle and mutations in these genes result in LR defects in zebrafish. Thus, defective FGF can result or contribute to several of the phenotypes observed in ciliary mutants, highlighting the complexity underlying each of the biological processes regulated by the cilium where distinct signaling pathways need to interact to control biological processes in a coordinated fashion.

PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

Given the ubiquitous distribution of cilia, their involvement in multiple signaling cascades and the plethora of biological processes that these cascades regulate, it is not surprising that complete absence of cilia is generally incompatible with life. Therefore, defective ciliogenesis should result in the more severe phenotypes. One syndrome that lies at the severe end of the ciliopathy phenotypic spectrum is Meckel–Gruber syndrome (MKS; OMIM 249000; Table I). MKS is a lethal condition characterized by occipital encephalocoele, neural tube defects, cystic kidney disease, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly and cleft palate [Alexiev et al., 2006]. Six MKS loci have been mapped to date from which five genes have been identified: MKS1, MKS3, CEP290, RPGRIP1L, and MKS6/CC2D2A [Kyttälä et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2006; Delous et al., 2007; Baala et al., 2007a; Tallila et al., 2008]. Importantly, the characterization of these genes/proteins has demonstrated that MKS is a ciliopathy that likely results from ciliogenesis defects. MKS1 and MKS3 localize to the basal body of cilia and are required for its migration to underneath the apical membrane during ciliogenesis [Dawe et al., 2007]. Interestingly, MKS1 contains a protein motif (B9 domain) that albeit of unknown function, is shared by two other proteins, MKS1-related proteins 1 and 2 (MKSR-1 and MKSR-2) and is found exclusively in ciliated organisms. Knockdown experiments in cells have shown that similarly to MKS1, MKSR-1 and MKSR-2 are also implicated in ciliogenesis in mammalian cells [Bialas et al., 2009]. More recently, it was shown that fibroblast cells from MKS patients bearing mutations in MKS6/CC2D2A lack cilia [Tallila et al., 2008]. Interestingly, the other two MKS genes, CEP290 and RPGRIP1L/MKS5, are also linked to cilia. CEP290 is a basal body protein also implicated in the pathogenesis of NPHP, JS and BBS [Sayer et al., 2006; Valente et al., 2006; Baala et al., 2007a; Leitch et al., 2008] and RPGRIP1L/MKS5 encodes a basal body protein mutated in JS [Delous et al., 2007] (Table II). Thus, the analysis of the different MKS proteins strongly supports a ciliary defect as the underlying cause of this disorder and also highlights the complex genetics of the ciliopathies whereby mutations in the same gene can result in seemingly distinct clinical manifestations.

A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

The concept of a ciliopathy implies that different clinical entities share a common cellular defect and an overlapping set of phenotypes

The concept of a ciliopathy implies that different clinical entities share a common cellular defect and an overlapping set of phenotypes

(Table I). Importantly, the identification of typical phenotypic outcomes of ciliary dysfunction has provided a predictive tool when attempting to gain insight into the cellular basis of disorders of unknown etiology.

Importantly, the identification of typical phenotypic outcomes of ciliary dysfunction has provided a predictive tool when attempting to gain insight into the cellular basis of disorders of unknown etiology.

An example is JATD that was predicted to be a ciliopathy before causal genes were identified, based solely on clinical features that overlap with those of other known ciliopathies such as cystic kidneys, brain malformations, polydactyly, and skeletal defects [Badano et al., 2006b]. Additionally, our improved knowledge has also resulted in a positive feedback loop affecting the genetic dissection of the ciliopathies by allowing for example the possibility of filtering a list of candidate genes in a genomic locus according to whether the genes encode “ciliary proteins” or not. In this context, a multi-group effort has led to the identification of a number of genes/proteins involved in ciliary biology which have been integrated in a non-redundant list: the ciliary proteome [Gherman et al., 2006 and references within; http://www.ciliaproteome.org/]. For example, the categorization of BBS as a ciliopathy and the availability of the ciliary proteome has greatly facilitated the identification of several BBS genes such as for example BBS3, BBS5, and BBS12, by prioritizing candidate genes and first sequencing those included in the ciliary proteome [Fan et al., 2004; Li et al., 2004; Stoetzel et al., 2007].

Another important implication of the ciliopathy concept is that alterations in different genes can result in overlapping phenotypic features and thus a first possibility is that mutations in different genes can cause the same disorder. It is interesting to note that the majority of the ciliopathies are genetically heterogeneous disorders

Another important implication of the ciliopathy concept is that alterations in different genes can result in overlapping phenotypic features and thus a first possibility is that mutations in different genes can cause the same disorder. It is interesting to note that the majority of the ciliopathies are genetically heterogeneous disorders

(Table II). In addition, it has been shown that disorders historically considered as mendelian traits can present more complex patterns of disease transmission, oligogenic inheritance, whereby mutations in more than one locus segregate with the disease in families. For example in some BBS families, three mutant alleles involving bona fide BBS genes as well as second site modifiers, collaborate to modulate the penetrance and expressivity of the disorder [for some references see Katsanis et al., 2001; Beales et al., 2003; Badano et al., 2006a]. Similarly, mutations in more than one NPHP gene have also been detected in patients showing that in some families at least, NPHP can be inherited as an oligogenic trait [Hoefele et al., 2007]. Furthermore, it has been shown that epistatic interactions between mutant alleles in different genes can greatly influence the expressivity of the disease in NPHP patients. While alterations in NPHP1 are mainly associated with nephronophthisis, the presence of additional mutations in NPHP6 and AHI1 can determine the development of neurological symptoms associated with JS [Tory et al., 2007].

The later example introduces a second possibility in that mutations in a given gene might be related to distinct clinical entities either as causal or modifying factors (see Syndrome column in Table II). For example, RPGRIP1L contribute alleles to the pathogenesis of NPHP, JS, and MKS and it was recently shown that a specific allele of this gene is a modifier of the retinal phenotype of ciliopathy patients bearing mutations at other loci [Arts et al., 2007; Delous et al., 2007; Wolf et al., 2007; Khanna et al., 2009]. Mutations in CEP290 have been found associated with NPHP (NPHP6), JS, MKS and BBS [Sayer et al., 2006; Valente et al., 2006; Baala et al., 2007a; Frank et al., 2008; Leitch et al., 2008]. Likewise, MKS3 mutations have been identified in JS patients [Baala et al., 2007b; Brancati et al., 2009]. Another example is provided by BBS and MKS, two disorders significantly similar at the phenotypic level (Table I). Interestingly, mutations in BBS2, BBS4, and BBS6 have been found in MKS-like fetuses [Karmous-Benailly et al., 2005] and more recently, it was shown that mutations in MKS1, MKS3, and CEP290 are found in BBS patients as either causal or modifier alleles [Leitch et al., 2008].

These data raise the question of why mutations in the same gene can result in different clinical manifestations. In some cases, the specific mutated gene determines the final outcome as is the case in Senior–Løken syndrome where although different NPHP genes can cause it, mutations in NPHP5 are invariably associated with it. Importantly, nephrocystin-5 localizes to the photoreceptors and interacts with calmodulin and the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR), a gene mutated in retinitis pigmentosa [Otto et al., 2005]. In other cases, the different phenotypic outcome does not present a clear correlation with localization or pattern of expression but rather seems to depend on the type of mutation and its impact on protein function. In BBS for example, in vivo assessment of the pathogenic effect of the mutations found in the MKS genes has shown that while mutations normally associated with the lethal MKS phenotype are complete nulls, residual activity is observed in the MKS proteins with BBS-associated mutations [Leitch et al., 2008]. Recently, likely hypomorphic mutations in MKS3 have been identified in patients with NPHP and liver fibrosis [Otto et al., 2009]. Similarly, it was shown that while a hypomorphic mutation in Nphp3 in the pcy mouse model results in cystic kidney disease, complete loss of Nphp3 results in a pleiotropic lethal phenotype that includes congenital heart defects and situs inversus, and in humans a MKS-like phenotype [Bergmann et al., 2008]. Altogether, these data indicate that the ciliopathies, albeit they can be recognized as distinct clinical entities, represent a continuum of disease severity where the position of any given disorder is determined by the specific gene that is mutated, its biological role and pattern of expression, the total mutational load across different ciliary genes, and importantly, the type and effect of the mutations on protein function.

UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

In the last decade, a plethora of biological roles have been assigned to cilia including photoreception, mechano-sensing, and paracrine signaling transduction. This in turn has translated into important progress in our understanding of the cellular basis of different phenotypes that characterize the ciliopathies such as for example cystic kidney disease. Other phenotypes however have proven to be more difficult to understand and dissect. One particular example is obesity, a hallmark of several ciliopathies, particularly BBS and ALMS (Table I). Bbs mutant animals show hyperphagia and present elevated leptin levels [for some references see Fath et al., 2005; Eichers et al., 2006; Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009]. Furthermore, in Bbs2−/− and Bbs4−/− neurons, the ciliary localization of somatostatin receptor type 3 (Sstr3) and melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mchr1), which is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, is lost [Berbari et al., 2008]. Other clues have been provided by conditional mutants of Ift88 showing that disruption of the gene in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus results in mice that are obese, hyperphagic, and have elevated leptin levels [Davenport et al., 2007]. Interestingly, the BBS proteins appear to be required for leptin receptor (LepR) intracellular trafficking in hypothalamic neurons and thus it has been suggested that the LepR signaling defect observed in Bbs2−/−, Bbs4−/−, and Bbs6−/− mice might be due to impaired targeting of the receptor to the plasma membrane or the cilium, similarly to the ciliary localization requirements of components of the Shh signaling cascade [Seo et al., 2009]. Besides this putative role of the cilium in neurons, a recent report indicates that cilia and the BBS proteins are required for proper adipocyte differentiation whereby depletion of BBS proteins favors adipogenesis suggesting that the obesity phenotype might result from defects at multiple levels [Marion et al., 2009].

A deeper understanding of the role of cilia in different tissues and the phenotypes that result from their absence or malfunction not only has provided a means to predict novel ciliopathies but has also facilitated the identification of novel phenotypes in ciliopathy patients. Given that olfactory neurons present highly specialized cilia that are important for odorant perception it was hypothesized that a cilia-related phenotype would be anosmia, a prediction that was subsequently proven in BBS patients [Kulaga et al., 2004]. Similarly, it was shown that Bbs1 and Bbs4 mutant mice present thermosensory defects due to problems with peripheral ciliated sensory neurons, a phenotype that also is present in BBS patients and was not previously recognized in the clinic [Tan et al., 2007]. Therefore, our knowledge regarding the cellular basis of these human conditions has led to a better clinical characterization of patients providing important data for diagnostic, counseling and eventually treatment purposes.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

The success linking ciliary function with diverse biological processes has been impressive. The challenge has become to start elucidating the exact role that the cilium is playing in each case and equally important, why tissues and organs are affected differently by defects in ciliary function. Undoubtedly one important variable to consider is the pattern of expression of the ciliary gene/s. At the same time however, the fact that a number of ciliary genes are expressed differentially between ciliated tissues reflects the multiple and diverse roles that these organelles are playing in different contexts highlighting the need to characterize ciliary proteins in physiologically relevant settings. To this end, animal models in which the gene of interest is perturbed in a tissue specific and/or temporally regulated manner are proving to be extremely powerful and some examples have been mentioned in this review. Another likely underestimated issue that complicates the study of ciliary proteins is that many of them appear to have extraciliary roles. In addition to some of the examples provided in this review, PC2, the Ca2+ channel required for mechanosensation both in renal epithelial cells and in the embryonic node, also localizes to the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum where it operates as an intracellular Ca2+ release channel [reviewed by Tsiokas et al., 2007]. Similarly, several NPHP proteins, including NPHP2/inversin and NPHP1, localize to basal bodies and cell–cell junctions [Nürnberger et al., 2002; Hildebrandt et al., 2009].

One question that will likely be answered as we dissect these issues is why the different signaling cascades mentioned above need the cilium in the first place. A priori, one plausible answer seems to rely on the compartmentalization that the cilium permits, allowing both the concentration and separation of different moieties, and the use of an efficient microtubule based transport mechanism to rapidly relay information from the cilium towards the centrosome, the microtubule organizing center, and into the nucleus. Considering this continuum then, it is not surprising that in general, the phenotype in ciliopathy patients or animal models appears to depend on how globally is ciliary function affected. Mutations in a protein that needs to be localized to the cilium (such as PC2) might result in a fairly restricted phenotype while global ciliary dysfunction (disrupted ciliogenesis in MKS or basal body dysfunction in BBS) probably affect, albeit to different degrees, all the biological processes that operate through the organelle resulting in highly pleiotropic or lethal phenotypes. In addition, one lesson from the genetic dissection of ciliopathies is that the degree of ciliary dysfunction, and therefore the clinical manifestation, is also influenced by the number and type of mutations in different components of the system. Importantly, the availability of high-throughput mutational screening technologies, the development of reliable functional assays to test coding variants and our deeper understanding of the cellular and genetic basis of these disorders will likely have a beneficial impact on the clinical management of affected patients.

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES

First of all we apologize to all those scientists whose contribution to understand ciliary biology could not be properly cited in this manuscript due to space limitations. We also thank Cecilia Gascue for her critical comments on the manuscript. JLB and MCR are supported by the Genzyme Renal Innovations Program (GRIP) and by Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Innovación (ANII), Programa de Apoyo Sectorial a la Estrategia Nacional de Innovación - INNOVA URUGUAY, DCI-ALA/2007/19.040.

REFERENCES

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE CILIUM: BASIC BIOLOGY
  5. CILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HUMAN DISEASE
  6. CILIA IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  7. PERTURBED CILIOGENESIS IN THE CILIOPATHIES
  8. A COMMON GENETIC BASIS FOR DISTINCT CLINICAL ENTITIES
  9. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CILIA-ASSOCIATED PHENOTYPES
  10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. REFERENCES
  • Aanstad P, Santos N, Corbit KC, Scherz PJ, Trinh LA, Salvenmoser W, Huisken J, Reiter JF, Stainier DY. 2009. The extracellular domain of smoothened regulates ciliary localization and is required for high-level Hh signaling. Curr Biol 19: 10341039.
  • Afzelius BA. 1976. A human syndrome caused by immotile cilia. Science 193: 317319.
  • Alexiev BA, Lin X, Sun CC, Brenner DS. 2006. Meckel-Gruber syndrome: Pathologic manifestations, minimal diagnostic criteria, and differential diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130: 12361238.
  • Ansley SJ, Badano JL, Blacque OE, Hill J, Hoskins BE, Leitch CC, Kim JC, Ross AJ, Eichers ER, Teslovich TM, Mah AK, Johnsen RC, Cavender JC, Lewis RA, Leroux MR, Beales PL, Katsanis N. 2003. Basal body dysfunction is a likely cause of pleiotropic Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Nature 425: 628633.
  • Arts HH, Doherty D, van Beersum SE, Parisi MA, Letteboer SJ, Gorden NT, Peters TA, Märker T, Voesenek K, Kartono A, Ozyurek H, Farin FM, Kroes HY, Wolfrum U, Brunner HG, Cremers FP, Glass IA, Knoers NV, Roepman R. 2007. Mutations in the gene encoding the basal body protein RPGRIP1L, a nephrocystin-4 interactor, cause Joubert syndrome. Nat Genet 39: 882888.
  • Baala L, Audollent S, Martinovic J, Ozilou C, Babron MC, Sivanandamoorthy S, Saunier S, Salomon R, Gonzales M, Rattenberry E, Esculpavit C, Toutain A, Moraine C, Parent P, Marcorelles P, Dauge MC, Roume J, Le Merrer M, Meiner V, Meir K, Menez F, Beaufrère AM, Francannet C, Tantau J, Sinico M, Dumez Y, MacDonald F, Munnich A, Lyonnet S, Gubler MC, Génin E, Johnson CA, Vekemans M, Encha-Razavi F, Attié-Bitach T. 2007a. Pleiotropic effects of CEP290 (NPHP6) mutations extend to Meckel syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 81: 170179.
  • Baala L, Romano S, Khaddour R, Saunier S, Smith UM, Audollent S, Ozilou C, Faivre L, Laurent N, Foliguet B, Munnich A, Lyonnet S, Salomon R, Encha-Razavi F, Gubler MC, Boddaert N, de Lonlay P, Johnson CA, Vekemans M, Antignac C, Attie-Bitach T. 2007b. The Meckel-Gruber syndrome gene, MKS3, is mutated in Joubert syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 80: 186194.
  • Bacallao RL, McNeill H. 2009. Cystic kidney diseases and planar cell polarity signaling. Clin Genet 75: 107117.
  • Badano JL, Teslovich TM, Katsanis N. 2005. The centrosome in human genetic disease. Nat Rev Genet 6: 194205.
  • Badano JL, Leitch CC, Ansley SJ, May-Simera H, Lawson S, Lewis RA, Beales PL, Dietz HC, Fisher S, Katsanis N. 2006a. Dissection of epistasis in oligogenic Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Nature 439: 326330.
  • Badano JL, Mitsuma N, Beales PL, Katsanis N. 2006b. The ciliopathies: An emergin class of human genetic disorders. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 7: 125148.
  • Bartoloni L, Blouin JL, Pan Y, Gehrig C, Maiti AK, Scamuffa N, Rossier C, Jorissen M, Armengot M, Meeks M, Mitchison HM, Chung EM, Delozier-Blanchet CD, Craigen WJ, Antonarakis SE. 2002. Mutations in the DNAH11 (axonemal heavy chain dynein type 11) gene cause one form of situs inversus totalis and most likely primary ciliary dyskinesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 1028210286.
  • Basu B, Brueckner M. 2008. Cilia multifunctional organelles at the center of vertebrate left-right asymmetry. Curr Top Dev Biol 85: 151174.
  • Beales PL, Badano JL, Ross AJ, Ansley SJ, Hoskins BE, Kirsten B, Mein CA, Froguel P, Scambler PJ, Lewis RA, Lupski JR, Katsanis N. 2003. Genetic interaction of BBS1 mutations with alleles at other BBS loci can result in non-Mendelian Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 72: 11871199.
  • Beales PL, Bland E, Tobin JL, Bacchelli C, Tuysuz B, Hill J, Rix S, Pearson CG, Kai M, Hartley J, Johnson C, Irving M, Elcioglu N, Winey M, Tada M, Scambler PJ. 2007. IFT80, which encodes a conserved intraflagellar transport protein, is mutated in Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Nat Genet 39: 727729.
  • Berbari NF, Lewis JS, Bishop GA, Askwith CC, Mykytyn K. 2008. Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins are required for the localization of G protein-coupled receptors to primary cilia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 42424246.
  • Bergmann C, Fliegauf M, Brüchle NO, Frank V, Olbrich H, Kirschner J, Schermer B, Schmedding I, Kispert A, Kränzlin B, Nürnberg G, Becker C, Grimm T, Girschick G, Lynch SA, Kelehan P, Senderek J, Neuhaus TJ, Stallmach T, Zentgraf H, Nürnberg P, Gretz N, Lo C, Lienkamp S, Schäfer T, Walz G, Benzing T, Zerres K, Omran H. 2008. Loss of nephrocystin-3 function can cause embryonic lethality, Meckel-Gruber-like syndrome, situs inversus, and renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia. Am J Hum Genet 82: 959970.
  • Bialas NJ, Inglis PN, Li C, Robinson JF, Parker JD, Healey MP, Davis EE, Inglis CD, Toivonen T, Cottell DC, Blacque OE, Quarmby LM, Katsanis N, Leroux MR. 2009. Functional interactions between the ciliopathy-associated Meckel syndrome 1 (MKS1) protein and two novel MKS1-related (MKSR) proteins. J Cell Sci 122: 611624.
  • Brancati F, Iannicelli M, Travaglini L, Mazzotta A, Bertini E, Boltshauser E, D'Arrigo S, Emma F, Fazzi E, Gallizzi R, Gentile M, Loncarevic D, Mejaski-Bosnjak V, Pantaleoni C, Rigoli L, Salpietro CD, Signorini S, Stringini GR, Verloes A, Zabloka D, Dallapiccola B, Gleeson JG, Valente EM, Group IJS. 2009. MKS3/TMEM67 mutations are a major cause of COACH Syndrome, a Joubert Syndrome related disorder with liver involvement. Hum Mutat 30: E432E442.
  • Chizhikov VV, Davenport J, Zhang Q, Shih EK, Cabello OA, Fuchs JL, Yoder BK, Millen KJ. 2007. Cilia proteins control cerebellar morphogenesis by promoting expansion of the granule progenitor pool. J Neurosci 27: 97809789.
  • Christensen ST, Pedersen SF, Satir P, Veland IR, Schneider L. 2008. The primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair. Curr Top Dev Biol 85: 261301.
  • Consortium TEPKD. 1994. The polycystic kidney disease 1 gene encodes a 14 kb transcript and lies within a duplicated region on chromosome 16. Cell 77: 881894.
  • Corbit KC, Aanstad P, Singla V, Norman AR, Stainier DY, Reiter JF. 2005. Vertebrate smoothened functions at the primary cilium. Nature 437: 10181021.
  • Corbit KC, Shyer AE, Dowdle WE, Gaulden J, Singla V, Chen MH, Chuang PT, Reiter JF. 2008. Kif3a constrains beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling through dual ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms. Nat Cell Biol 10: 7076.
  • Dagoneau N, Goulet M, Geneviève D, Sznajer Y, Martinovic J, Smithson S, Huber C, Baujat G, Flori E, Tecco L, Cavalcanti D, Delezoide AL, Serre V, Le Merrer M, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V. 2009. DYNC2H1 mutations cause asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy and short rib-polydactyly syndrome, type III. Am J Hum Genet 84: 706711.
  • Davenport JR, Watts AJ, Roper VC, Croyle MJ, van Groen T, Wyss JM, Nagy TR, Kesterson RA, Yoder BK. 2007. Disruption of intraflagellar transport in adult mice leads to obesity and slow-onset cystic kidney disease. Curr Biol 17: 15861594.
  • Dawe HR, Smith UM, Cullinane AR, Gerrelli D, Cox P, Badano JL, Blair-Reid S, Sriram N, Katsanis N, Attie-Bitach T, Afford SC, Copp AJ, Kelly DA, Gull K, Johnson CA. 2007. The Meckel-Gruber Syndrome proteins MKS1 and meckelin interact and are required for primary cilium formation. Hum Mol Genet 16: 173186.
  • Delous M, Baala L, Salomon R, Laclef C, Vierkotten J, Tory K, Golzio C, Lacoste T, Besse L, Ozilou C, Moutkine I, Hellman NE, Anselme I, Silbermann F, Vesque C, Gerhardt C, Rattenberry E, Wolf MT, Gubler MC, Martinovic J, Encha-Razavi F, Boddaert N, Gonzales M, Macher MA, Nivet H, Champion G, Berthélémé JP, Niaudet P, McDonald F, Hildebrandt F, Johnson CA, Vekemans M, Antignac C, Rüther U, Schneider-Maunoury S, Attié-Bitach T, Saunier S. 2007. The ciliary gene RPGRIP1L is mutated in cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome (Joubert syndrome type B) and Meckel syndrome. Nat Genet 39: 875881.
  • Eggenschwiler JT, Anderson KV. 2007. Cilia and developmental signaling. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 23: 345373.
  • Eichers ER, Abd-El-Barr MM, Paylor R, Lewis RA, Bi W, Lin X, Meehan TP, Stockton DW, Wu SM, Lindsay E, Justice MJ, Beales PL, Katsanis N, Lupski JR. 2006. Phenotypic characterization of Bbs4 null mice reveals age-dependent penetrance and variable expressivity. Hum Genet 120: 211226.
  • Fan Y, Esmail MA, Ansley SJ, Blacque OE, Boroevich K, Ross AJ, Moore SJ, Badano JL, May-Simera H, Compton DS, Green JS, Lewis RA, van Haelst MM, Parfrey PS, Baillie DL, Beales PL, Katsanis N, Davidson WS, Leroux MR. 2004. Mutations in a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins causes Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Nat Genet 36: 989993.
  • Fath MA, Mullins RF, Searby C, Nishimura DY, Wei J, Rahmouni K, Davis RE, Tayeh MK, Andrews M, Yang B, Sigmund CD, Stone EM, Sheffield VC. 2005. Mkks-null mice have a phenotype resembling Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 14: 11091118.
  • Ferrante MI, Giorgio G, Feather SA, Bulfone A, Wright V, Ghiani M, Selicorni A, Gammaro L, Scolari F, Woolf AS, Sylvie O, Bernard L, Malcolm S, Winter R, Ballabio A, Franco B. 2001. Identification of the gene for oral-facial-digital type I syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 68: 569576.
  • Fischer E, Legue E, Doyen A, Nato F, Nicolas JF, Torres V, Yaniv M, Pontoglio M. 2006. Defective planar cell polarity in polycystic kidney disease. Nat Genet 38: 2123.
  • Frank V, den Hollander A, Brüchle NO, Zonneveld MN, Nürnberg G, Becker C, Du Bois G, Kendziorra H, Roosing S, Senderek J, Nürnberg P, Cremers FP, Zerres K, Bergmann C. 2008. Mutations of the CEP290 gene encoding a centrosomal protein cause Meckel-Gruber syndrome. Hum Mutat 29: 4552.
  • Gerdes JM, Katsanis N. 2008. Ciliary function and Wnt signal modulation. Curr Top Dev Biol 85: 175195.
  • Gerdes JM, Liu Y, Zaghloul NA, Leitch CC, Lawson SS, Kato M, Beachy PA, Beales PL, DeMartino GN, Fisher S, Badano JL, Katsanis N. 2007. Disruption of the basal body compromises proteasomal function and perturbs intracellular Wnt response. Nat Genet 39: 13501360.
  • Germino GG. 2005. Linking cilia to Wnts. Nat Genet 37: 455457.
  • Gherman A, Davis EE, Katsanis N. 2006. The ciliary proteome database: An integrated community resource for the genetic and functional dissection of cilia. Nat Genet 38: 961962.
  • Gonzalez-Perrett S, Kim K, Ibarra C, Damiano AE, Zotta E, Batelli M, Harris PC, Reisin IL, Arnaout MA, Cantiello HF. 2001. Polycystin-2, the protein mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), is a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 11821187.
  • Grigoryan T, Wend P, Klaus A, Birchmeier W. 2008. Deciphering the function of canonical Wnt signals in development and disease: Conditional loss- and gain-of-function mutations of beta-catenin in mice. Genes Dev 22: 23082341.
  • Han YG, Spassky N, Romaguera-Ros M, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Aguilar A, Schneider-Maunoury S, Alvarez-Buylla A. 2008. Hedgehog signaling and primary cilia are required for the formation of adult neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci 11: 277284.
  • Hanaoka K, Qian F, Boletta A, Bhunia AK, Piontek K, Tsiokas L, Sukhatme VP, Guggino WB, Germino GG. 2000. Co-assembly of polycystin-1 and -2 produces unique cation-permeable currents. Nature 408: 990994.
  • Harris PC, Torres VE. 2009. Polycystic kidney disease. Annu Rev Med 60: 321337.
  • Haycraft CJ, Banizs B, Aydin-Son Y, Zhang Q, Michaud EJ, Yoder BK. 2005. Gli2 and Gli3 localize to cilia and require the intraflagellar transport protein polaris for processing and function. PLoS Genet 1: 04800488.
  • Haycraft CJ, Zhang Q, Song B, Jackson WS, Detloff PJ, Serra R, Yoder BK. 2007. Intraflagellar transport is essential for endochondral bone formation. Development 134: 307316.
  • Hearn T, Spalluto C, Phillips VJ, Renforth GL, Copin N, Hanley NA, Wilson DI. 2005. Subcellular localization of ALMS1 supports involvement of centrosome and basal body dysfunction in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 54: 15811587.
  • Hildebrandt F, Otto E. 2005. Cilia and centrosomes: A unifying pathogenic concept for cystic kidney disease? Nat Rev Genet 6: 928940.
  • Hildebrandt F, Attanasio M, Otto E. 2009. Nephronophthisis: Disease mechanisms of a ciliopathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 20: 2335.
  • Hoefele J, Wolf MT, O'Toole JF, Otto EA, Schultheiss U, Dêschenes G, Attanasio M, Utsch B, Antignac C, Hildebrandt F. 2007. Evidence of oligogenic inheritance in nephronophthisis. J Am Soc Nephrol 18: 27892795.
  • Hogan MC, Manganelli L, Woollard JR, Masyuk AI, Masyuk TV, Tammachote R, Huang BQ, Leontovich AA, Beito TG, Madden BJ, Charlesworth MC, Torres VE, LaRusso NF, Harris PC, Ward CJ. 2009. Characterization of PKD protein-positive exosome-like vesicles. J Am Soc Nephrol 20: 278288.
  • Hong SK, Dawid IB. 2009. FGF-dependent left-right asymmetry patterning in zebrafish is mediated by Ier2 and Fibp1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 22302235.
  • Huangfu D, Liu A, Rakeman AS, Murcia NS, Niswander L, Anderson KV. 2003. Hedgehog signalling in the mouse requires intraflagellar transport proteins. Nature 426: 8387.
  • Ibanez-Tallon I, Pagenstecher A, Fliegauf M, Olbrich H, Kispert A, Ketelsen UP, North A, Heintz N, Omran H. 2004. Dysfunction of axonemal dynein heavy chain Mdnah5 inhibits ependymal flow and reveals a novel mechanism for hydrocephalus formation. Hum Mol Genet 13: 21332141.
  • Insinna C, Besharse JC. 2008. Intraflagellar transport and the sensory outer segment of vertebrate photoreceptors. Dev Dyn 237: 19821992.
  • Karmous-Benailly H, Martinovic J, Gubler MC, Sirot Y, Clech L, Ozilou C, Auge J, Brahimi N, Etchevers H, Detrait E, Esculpavit C, Audollent S, Goudefroye G, Gonzales M, Tantau J, Loget P, Joubert M, Gaillard D, Jeanne-Pasquier C, Delezoide AL, Peter MO, Plessis G, Simon-Bouy B, Dollfus H, Le Merrer M, Munnich A, Encha-Razavi F, Vekemans M, Attie-Bitach T. 2005. Antenatal presentation of Bardet-Biedl syndrome may mimic Meckel syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 76: 493504.
  • Katsanis N, Ansley SJ, Badano JL, Eichers ER, Lewis RA, Hoskins BE, Scambler PJ, Davidson WS, Beales PL, Lupski JR. 2001. Triallelic inheritance in Bardet-Biedl syndrome, a Mendelian recessive disorder. Science 293: 22562259.
  • Khanna H, Davis EE, Murga-Zamalloa CA, Estrada-Cuzcano A, Lopez I, den Hollander A, Zonneveld MN, Othman MI, Waseem N, Chakarova CF, Maubaret C, Diaz-Font A, Macdonald I, Muzny DM, Wheeler DA, Morgan M, Lewis LR, Logan CV, Tan PL, Beer MA, Inglehearn CF, Lewis RA, Jacobson SG, Bergmann C, Beales PL, Attié-Bitach T, Johnson CA, Otto EA, Bhattacharya SS, Hildebrandt F, Gibbs RA, Koenekoop RK, Swaroop A, Katsanis N. 2009. A common allele in RPGRIP1L is a modifier of retinal degeneration in ciliopathies. Nat Genet 41: 739745.
  • Kim JC, Badano JL, Sibold S, Esmail MA, Hill J, Hoskins BE, Leitch CC, Venner K, Ansley SJ, Ross AJ, Leroux MR, Katsanis N, Beales PL. 2004. The Bardet-Biedl protein BBS4 targets cargo to the pericentriolar region and is required for microtubule anchoring and cell cycle progression. Nat Genet 36: 462470.
  • Kim JC, Ou YY, Badano JL, Esmail MA, Leitch CC, Fiedrich E, Beales PL, Archibald JM, Katsanis N, Rattner JB, Leroux MR. 2005. MKKS/BBS6, a divergent chaperonin-like protein linked to the obesity disorder Bardet-Biedl syndrome, is a novel centrosomal component required for cytokinesis. J Cell Sci 118: 10071020.
  • Kim I, Fu Y, Hui K, Moeckel G, Mai W, Li C, Liang D, Zhao P, Ma J, Chen XZ, George ALJ, Coffey RJ, Feng ZP, Wu G. 2008. Fibrocystin/polyductin modulates renal tubular formation by regulating polycystin-2 expression and function. J Am Soc Nephrol 19: 455468.
  • Kovacs JJ, Whalen EJ, Liu R, Xiao K, Kim J, Chen M, Wang J, Chen W, Lefkowitz RJ. 2008. Beta-arrestin-mediated localization of smoothened to the primary cilium. Science 320: 17771781.
  • Koyama E, Young B, Nagayama M, Shibukawa Y, Enomoto-Iwamoto M, Iwamoto M, Maeda Y, Lanske B, Song B, Serra R, Pacifici M. 2007. Conditional Kif3a ablation causes abnormal hedgehog signaling topography, growth plate dysfunction, and excessive bone and cartilage formation during mouse skeletogenesis. Development 134: 21592169.
  • Kozminski KG, Johnson KA, Forscher P, Rosenbaum JL. 1993. A motility in the eukaryotic flagellum unrelated to flagellar beating. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 55195523.
  • Krock BL, Perkins BD. 2008. The intraflagellar transport protein IFT57 is required for cilia maintenance and regulates IFT-particle-kinesin-II dissociation in vertebrate photoreceptors. J Cell Sci 121: 19071915.
  • Kulaga HM, Leitch CC, Eichers ER, Badano JL, Lesemann A, Hoskins BE, Lupski JR, Beales PL, Reed RR, Katsanis N. 2004. Loss of BBS proteins causes anosmia in humans and defects in olfactory cilia structure and function in the mouse. Nat Genet 36: 994998.
  • Kyttälä M, Tallila J, Salonen R, Kopra O, Kohlschmidt N, Paavola-Sakki P, Peltonen L, Kestilä M. 2006. MKS1, encoding a component of the flagellar apparatus basal body proteome, is mutated in Meckel syndrome. Nat Genet 38: 155157.
  • Lechtreck KF, Witman GB. 2007. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydin is a central pair protein required for flagellar motility. J Cell Biol 176: 473482.
  • Lechtreck KF, Delmotte P, Robinson ML, Sanderson MJ, Witman GB. 2008. Mutations in Hydin impair ciliary motility in mice. J Cell Biol 180: 633643.
  • Leitch CC, Zaghloul NA, Davis EE, Stoetzel C, Diaz-Font A, Rix S, Alfadhel M, Lewis RA, Eyaid W, Banin E, Dollfus H, Beales PL, Badano JL, Katsanis N. 2008. Hypomorphic mutations in syndromic encephalocele genes are associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Nat Genet 40: 443448.
  • Li JB, Gerdes JM, Haycraft CJ, Fan Y, Teslovich TM, May-Simera H, Li H, Blacque OE, Li L, Leitch CC, Lewis RA, Green JS, Parfrey PS, Leroux MR, Davidson WS, Beales PL, Guay-Woodford LM, Yoder BK, Stormo GD, Katsanis N, Dutcher SK. 2004. Comparative genomic identification of conserved flagellar and basal body proteins that includes a novel gene for Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Cell 117: 541552.
  • Li G, Vega R, Nelms K, Gekakis N, Goodnow C, McNamara P, Wu H, Hong NA, Glynne R. 2007. A role for Alström syndrome protein, alms1, in kidney ciliogenesis and cellular quiescence. PLoS Genet 3: e8.
  • Lin F, Hiesberger T, Cordes K, Sinclair AM, Goldstein LS, Somlo S, Igarashi P. 2003. Kidney-specific inactivation of the KIF3A subunit of kinesin-II inhibits renal ciliogenesis and produces polycystic kidney disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 52865291.
  • Liu S, Lu W, Obara T, Kuida S, Lehoczky J, Dewar K, Drummond IA, Beier DR. 2002. A defect in a novel Nek-family kinase causes cystic kidney disease in the mouse and in zebrafish. Development 129: 58395846.
  • Loktev AV, Zhang Q, Beck JS, Searby CC, Scheetz TE, Bazan JF, Slusarski DC, Sheffield VC, Jackson PK, Nachury MV. 2008. A BBSome subunit links ciliogenesis, microtubule stability, and acetylation. Dev Cell 15: 854865.
  • Mai W, Chen D, Ding T, Kim I, Park S, Cho SY, Chu JS, Liang D, Wang N, Wu D, Li S, Zhao P, Zent R, Wu G. 2005. Inhibition of Pkhd1 impairs tubulomorphogenesis of cultured IMCD cells. Mol Biol Cell 16: 43984409.
  • Marion V, Stoetzel C, Schlicht D, Messaddeq N, Koch M, Flori E, Danse JM, Mandel JL, Dollfus H. 2009. Transient ciliogenesis involving Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins is a fundamental characteristic of adipogenic differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 18201825.
  • Marszalek JR, Liu X, Roberts EA, Chui D, Marth JD, Williams DS, Goldstein LS. 2000. Genetic evidence for selective transport of opsin and arrestin by kinesin-II in mammalian photoreceptors. Cell 102: 175187.
  • May SR, Ashique AM, Karlen M, Wang B, Shen Y, Zarbalis K, Reiter J, Ericson J, Peterson AS. 2005. Loss of the retrograde motor for IFT disrupts localization of Smo to cilia and prevents the expression of both activator and repressor functions of Gli. Dev Biol 287: 378389.
  • McGrath J, Somlo S, Makova S, Tian X, Brueckner M. 2003. Two populations of node monocilia initiate left-right asymmetry in the mouse. Cell 114: 6173.
  • Meyers EN, Martin GR. 1999. Differences in left-right axis pathways in mouse and chick: Functions of FGF8 and SHH. Science 285: 403406.
  • Mochizuki T, Wu G, Hayashi T, Xenophontos S, Veldhuisen B, Saris J, Renolds D, Cai Y, Gabow P, Pierides A, Kimberling W, Breuning M, Deltas C, Peters D, Somlo S. 1996. PKD2, a gene for polycystic kidney disease that encodes an integral membrane protein. Science 272: 13391342.
  • Moyer JH, Lee-Tischler MJ, Kwon HY, Schrick JJ, Avner ED, Sweeney WE, Godfrey VL, Cacheiro NL, Wilkinson JE, Woychik RP. 1994. Candidate gene associated with a mutation causing recessive polycystic kidney disease in mice. Science 264: 13291333.
  • Murcia NS, Richards WG, Yoder BK, Mucenski ML, Dunlap JR, Woychik RP. 2000. The Oak Ridge Polycystic Kidney (orpk) disease gene is required for left-right axis determination. Development 127: 23472355.
  • Nachury MV, Loktev AV, Zhang Q, Westlake CJ, Peränen J, Merdes A, Slusarski DC, Scheller RH, Bazan JF, Sheffield VC, Jackson PK. 2007. A core complex of BBS proteins cooperates with the GTPase Rab8 to promote ciliary membrane biogenesis. Cell 129: 12011213.
  • Nauli SM, Alenghat FJ, Luo Y, Williams E, Vassilev P, Li X, Elia AE, Lu W, Brown EM, Quinn SJ, Ingber DE, Zhou J. 2003. Polycystins 1 and 2 mediate mechanosensation in the primary cilium of kidney cells. Nat Genet 33: 129137.
  • Neugebauer JM, Amack JD, Peterson AG, Bisgrove BW, Yost HJ. 2009. FGF signalling during embryo development regulates cilia length in diverse epithelia. Nature 458: 651654.
  • Nonaka S, Tanaka Y, Okada Y, Takeda S, Harada A, Kanai Y, Kido M, Hirokawa N. 1998. Randomization of left-right asymmetry due to loss of nodal cilia generating leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in mice lacking KIF3B motor protein. Cell 95: 829837.
  • Nonaka S, Shiratori H, Saijoh Y, Hamada H. 2002. Determination of left-right patterning of the mouse embryo by artificial nodal flow. Nature 418: 9699.
  • Nonaka S, Yoshiba S, Watanabe D, Ikeuchi S, Goto T, Marshall WF, Hamada H. 2005. De novo formation of left-right asymmetry by posterior tilt of nodal cilia. PLoS Biol 3: e268.
  • Nürnberger J, Bacallao RL, Phillips CL. 2002. Inversin forms a complex with catenins and N-cadherin in polarized epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell 13: 30963106.
  • Okada Y, Nonaka S, Tanaka Y, Saijoh Y, Hamada H, Hirokawa N. 1999. Abnormal nodal flow precedes situs inversus in iv and inv mice. Mol Cell 4: 459468.
  • Okada Y, Takeda S, Tanaka Y, Belmonte JC, Hirokawa N. 2005. Mechanism of nodal flow: A conserved symmetry breaking event in left-right axis determination. Cell 121: 633644.
  • Olbrich H, Haffner K, Kispert A, Volkel A, Volz A, Sasmaz G, Reinhardt R, Hennig S, Lehrach H, Konietzko N, Zariwala M, Noone PG, Knowles M, Mitchison HM, Meeks M, Chung EM, Hildebrandt F, Sudbrak R, Omran H. 2002. Mutations in DNAH5 cause primary ciliary dyskinesia and randomization of left-right asymmetry. Nat Genet 30: 143144.
  • Onuchic LF, Furu L, Nagasawa Y, Hou X, Eggermann T, Ren Z, Bergmann C, Senderek J, Esquivel E, Zeltner R, Rudnik-Schoneborn S, Mrug M, Sweeney W, Avner ED, Zerres K, Guay-Woodford LM, Somlo S, Germino GG. 2002. PKHD1, the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 gene, encodes a novel large protein containing multiple immunoglobulin-like plexin-transcription-factor domains and parallel beta-helix 1 repeats. Am J Hum Genet 70: 13051317.
  • Otto EA, Schermer B, Obara T, O'Toole JF, Hiller KS, Mueller AM, Ruf RG, Hoefele J, Beekmann F, Landau D, Foreman JW, Goodship JA, Strachan T, Kispert A, Wolf MT, Gagnadoux MF, Nivet H, Antignac C, Walz G, Drummond IA, Benzing T, Hildebrandt F. 2003. Mutations in INVS encoding inversin cause nephronophthisis type 2, linking renal cystic disease to the function of primary cilia and left-right axis determination. Nat Genet 34: 413420.
  • Otto EA, Loeys B, Khanna H, Hellemans J, Sudbrak R, Fan S, Muerb U, O'Toole JF, Helou J, Attanasio M, Utsch B, Sayer JA, Lillo C, Jimeno D, Coucke P, De Paepe A, Reinhardt R, Klages S, Tsuda M, Kawakami I, Kusakabe T, Omran H, Imm A, Tippens M, Raymond PA, Hill J, Beales P, He S, Kispert A, Margolis B, Williams DS, Swaroop A, Hildebrandt F. 2005. Nephrocystin-5, a ciliary IQ domain protein, is mutated in Senior-Loken syndrome and interacts with RPGR and calmodulin. Nat Genet 37: 282288.
  • Otto EA, Tory K, Attanasio M, Zhou W, Chaki M, Paruchuri Y, Wise EL, Utsch B, Wolf MT, Becker C, Nürnberg G, Nürnberg P, Nayir A, Saunier S, Antignac C, Hildebrandt F. 2009. Hypomorphic mutations in Meckelin (MKS3/TMEM67) cause nephronophthisis with liver fibrosis (NPHP11). J Med Genet 46: 663670.
  • Parisi MA, Doherty D, Chance PF, Glass IA. 2007. Joubert syndrome (and related disorders) (OMIM 213300). Eur J Hum Genet 15: 511521.
  • Parker JD, Bradley BA, Mooers AO, Quarmby LM. 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the Neks reveals early diversification of ciliary-cell cycle kinases. PLoS ONE 2: e1076.
  • Pazour GJ, Dickert BL, Vucica Y, Seeley ES, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB, Cole DG. 2000. Chlamydomonas IFT88 and its mouse homologue, polycystic kidney disease gene tg737, are required for assembly of cilia and flagella. J Cell Biol 151: 709718.
  • Pazour GJ, Baker SA, Deane JA, Cole DG, Dickert BL, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB, Besharse JC. 2002a. The intraflagellar transport protein, IFT88, is essential for vertebrate photoreceptor assembly and maintenance. J Cell Biol 157: 103113.
  • Pazour GJ, San Agustin JT, Follit JA, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. 2002b. Polycystin-2 localizes to kidney cilia and the ciliary level is elevated in ORPK mice with polycystic kidney disease. Curr Biol 12: R378R380.
  • Pedersen LB, Rosenbaum JL. 2008. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) role in ciliary assembly, resorption and signalling. Curr Top Dev Biol 85: 2361.
  • Pennarun G, Escudier E, Chapelin C, Bridoux AM, Cacheux V, Roger G, Clement A, Goossens M, Amselem S, Duriez B. 1999. Loss-of-function mutations in a human gene related to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dynein IC78 result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. Am J Hum Genet 65: 15081519.
  • Pennekamp P, Karcher C, Fischer A, Schweickert A, Skryabin B, Horst J, Blum M, Dworniczak B. 2002. The ion channel polycystin-2 is required for left-right axis determination in mice. Curr Biol 12: 938943.
  • Piontek K, Menezes LF, Garcia-Gonzalez MA, Huso DL, Germino GG. 2007. A critical developmental switch defines the kinetics of kidney cyst formation after loss of Pkd1. Nat Med 13: 14901495.
  • Pisitkun T, Shen RF, Knepper MA. 2004. Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 1336813373.
  • Praetorius HA, Spring KR. 2001. Bending the MDCK cell primary cilium increases intracellular calcium. J Membr Biol 184: 7179.
  • Pugacheva EN, Jablonski SA, Hartman TR, Henske EP, Golemis EA. 2007. HEF1-dependent Aurora A activation induces disassembly of the primary cilium. Cell 129: 13511363.
  • Qian F, Germino FJ, Cai Y, Zhang X, Somlo S, Germino GG. 1997. PKD1 interacts with PKD2 through a probable coiled-coil domain. Nat Genet 16: 179183.
  • Qin H, Wang Z, Diener D, Rosenbaum J. 2007. Intraflagellar transport protein 27 is a small G protein involved in cell-cycle control. Curr Biol 17: 193202.
  • Robert A, Margall-Ducos G, Guidotti JE, Brégerie O, Celati C, Bréchot C, Desdouets C. 2007. The intraflagellar transport component IFT88/polaris is a centrosomal protein regulating G1-S transition in non-ciliated cells. J Cell Sci 120: 628637.
  • Rohatgi R, Milenkovic L, Scott MP. 2007. Patched1 regulates hedgehog signaling at the primary cilium. Science 317: 372376.
  • Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. 2002. Intraflagellar transport. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3: 813825.
  • Ross AJ, May-Simera H, Eichers ER, Kai M, Hill J, Jagger DJ, Leitch CC, Chapple JP, Munro PM, Fisher S, Tan PL, Phillips HM, Leroux MR, Henderson DJ, Murdoch JN, Copp AJ, Eliot MM, Lupski JR, Kemp DT, Dollfus H, Tada M, Katsanis N, Forge A, Beales PL. 2005. Disruption of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ciliary proteins perturbs planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Nat Genet 37: 11351140.
  • Ruiz-Perez VL, Blair HJ, Rodriguez-Andres ME, Blanco MJ, Wilson A, Liu YN, Miles C, Peters H, Goodship JA. 2007. Evc is a positive mediator of Ihh-regulated bone growth that localises at the base of chondrocyte cilia. Development 134: 29032912.
  • Saadi-Kheddouci S, Berrebi D, Romagnolo B, Cluzeaud F, Peuchmaur M, Kahn A, Vandewalle A, Perret C. 2001. Early development of polycystic kidney disease in transgenic mice expressing an activated mutant of the beta-catenin gene. Oncogene 20: 59725981.
  • Santos N, Reiter JF. 2008. Building it up and taking it down: The regulation of vertebrate ciliogenesis. Dev Dyn 237: 19721981.
  • Sayer JA, Otto EA, O'Toole JF, Nurnberg G, Kennedy MA, Becker C, Hennies HC, Helou J, Attanasio M, Fausett BV, Utsch B, Khanna H, Liu Y, Drummond I, Kawakami I, Kusakabe T, Tsuda M, Ma L, Lee H, Larson RG, Allen SJ, Wilkinson CJ, Nigg EA, Shou C, Lillo C, Williams DS, Hoppe B, Kemper MJ, Neuhaus T, Parisi MA, Glass IA, Petry M, Kispert A, Gloy J, Ganner A, Walz G, Zhu X, Goldman D, Nurnberg P, Swaroop A, Leroux MR, Hildebrandt F. 2006. The centrosomal protein nephrocystin-6 is mutated in Joubert syndrome and activates transcription factor ATF4. Nat Genet 38: 674681.
  • Schneider L, Clement CA, Teilmann SC, Pazour GJ, Hoffmann EK, Satir P, Christensen ST. 2005. PDGFRalphaalpha signaling is regulated through the primary cilium in fibroblasts. Curr Biol 15: 18611866.
  • Seo S, Guo DF, Bugge K, Morgan DA, Rahmouni K, Sheffield VC. 2009. Requirement of Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins for leptin receptor signaling. Hum Mol Genet 18: 13231331.
  • Sharma N, Berbari NF, Yoder BK. 2008. Ciliary dysfunction in developmental abnormalities and diseases. Curr Top Dev Biol 85: 371427.
  • Simons M, Walz G. 2006. Polycystic kidney disease: Cell division without a c(l)ue? Kidney Int 70: 854864.
  • Simons M, Gloy J, Ganner A, Bullerkotte A, Bashkurov M, Kronig C, Schermer B, Benzing T, Cabello OA, Jenny A, Mlodzik M, Polok B, Driever W, Obara T, Walz G. 2005. Inversin, the gene product mutated in nephronophthisis type II, functions as a molecular switch between Wnt signalling pathways. Nat Genet 37: 537543.
  • Smith UM, Consugar M, Tee LJ, McKee BM, Maina EN, Whelan S, Morgan NV, Goranson E, Gissen P, Lilliquist S, Aligianis IA, Ward CJ, Pasha S, Punyashthiti R, Malik Sharif S, Batman PA, Bennett CP, Woods CG, McKeown C, Bucourt M, Miller CA, Cox P, Algazali L, Trembath RC, Torres VE, Attie-Bitach T, Kelly DA, Maher ER, Gattone VHn, Harris PC, Johnson CA. 2006. The transmembrane protein meckelin (MKS3) is mutated in Meckel-Gruber syndrome and the wpk rat. Nat Genet 38: 191196.
  • Spassky N, Han YG, Aguilar A, Strehl L, Besse L, Laclef C, Ros MR, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alvarez-Buylla A. 2008. Primary cilia are required for cerebellar development and Shh-dependent expansion of progenitor pool. Dev Biol 317: 246259.
  • Spektor A, Tsang WY, Khoo D, Dynlacht BD. 2007. Cep97 and CP110 suppress a cilia assembly program. Cell 130: 678690.
  • Stoetzel C, Muller J, Laurier V, Davis EE, Zaghloul NA, Vicaire S, Jacquelin C, Plewniak F, Leitch CC, Sarda P, Hamel C, de Ravel TJ, Lewis RA, Friederich E, Thibault C, Danse JM, Verloes A, Bonneau D, Katsanis N, Poch O, Mandel JL, Dollfus H. 2007. Identification of a novel BBS gene (BBS12) highlights the major role of a vertebrate-specific branch of chaperonin-related proteins in Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 80: 111.
  • Supp DM, Witte DP, Potter SS, Brueckner M. 1997. Mutation of an axonemal dynein affects left-right asymmetry in inversus viscerum mice. Nature 389: 963966.
  • Tallila J, Jakkula E, Peltonen L, Salonen R, Kestilä M. 2008. Identification of CC2D2A as a Meckel syndrome gene adds an important piece to the ciliopathy puzzle. Am J Hum Genet 82: 13611367.
  • Tan PL, Barr T, Inglis PN, Mitsuma N, Huang SM, Garcia-Gonzalez MA, Bradley BA, Coforio S, Albrecht PJ, Watnick T, Germino GG, Beales PL, Caterina MJ, Leroux MR, Rice FL, Katsanis N. 2007. Loss of Bardet Biedl syndrome proteins causes defects in peripheral sensory innervation and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 1752417529.
  • Tanaka Y, Okada Y, Hirokawa N. 2005. FGF-induced vesicular release of Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid in leftward nodal flow is critical for left-right determination. Nature 435: 172177.
  • Taulman PD, Haycraft CJ, Balkovetz DF, Yoder BK. 2001. Polaris, a protein involved in left-right axis patterning, localizes to basal bodies and cilia. Mol Biol Cell 12: 589599.
  • Tory K, Lacoste T, Burglen L, Morinière V, Boddaert N, Macher MA, Llanas B, Nivet H, Bensman A, Niaudet P, Antignac C, Salomon R, Saunier S. 2007. High NPHP1 and NPHP6 mutation rate in patients with Joubert syndrome and nephronophthisis: Potential epistatic effect of NPHP6 and AHI1 mutations in patients with NPHP1 mutations. J Am Soc Nephrol 18: 15661575.
  • Tran PV, Haycraft CJ, Besschetnova TY, Turbe-Doan A, Stottmann RW, Herron BJ, Chesebro AL, Qiu H, Scherz PJ, Shah JV, Yoder BK, Beier DR. 2008. THM1 negatively modulates mouse sonic hedgehog signal transduction and affects retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia. Nat Genet 40: 403410.
  • Tsang WY, Bossard C, Khanna H, Peränen J, Swaroop A, Malhotra V, Dynlacht BD. 2008. CP110 suppresses primary cilia formation through its interaction with CEP290, a protein deficient in human ciliary disease. Dev Cell 15: 187197.
  • Tsiokas L, Kim E, Arnould T, Sukhatme VP, Walz G. 1997. Homo- and heterodimeric interactions between the gene products of PKD1 and PKD2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 69656970.
  • Tsiokas L, Kim S, Ong EC. 2007. Cell biology of polycystin-2. Cell Signal 19: 444453.
  • Upadhya P, Birkenmeier EH, Birkenmeier CS, Barker JE. 2000. Mutations in a NIMA-related kinase gene, Nek1, cause pleiotropic effects including a progressive polycystic kidney disease in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 217221.
  • Valente EM, Silhavy JL, Brancati F, Barrano G, Krishnaswami SR, Castori M, Lancaster MA, Boltshauser E, Boccone L, Al-Gazali L, Fazzi E, Signorini S, Louie CM, Bellacchio E, Group IJSRDS, Bertini E, Dallapiccola B, Gleeson JG. 2006. Mutations in CEP290, which encodes a centrosomal protein, cause pleiotropic forms of Joubert syndrome. Nat Genet 38: 623625.
  • Varjosalo M, Taipale J. 2008. Hedgehog: Functions and mechanisms. Genes Dev 22: 24542472.
  • Veeman MT, Axelrod JD, Moon RT. 2003. A second canon. Functions and mechanisms of beta-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. Dev Cell 5: 367377.
  • Vierkotten J, Dildrop R, Peters T, Wang B, Rüther U. 2007. Ftm is a novel basal body protein of cilia involved in Shh signalling. Development 134: 25692577.
  • Wang Y, Nathans J. 2007. Tissue/planar cell polarity in vertebrates: New insights and new questions. Development 134: 647658.
  • Wang S, Zhang J, Nauli SM, Li X, Starremans PG, Luo Y, Roberts KA, Zhou J. 2007. Fibrocystin/polyductin, found in the same protein complex with polycystin-2, regulates calcium responses in kidney epithelia. Mol Cell Biol 27: 32413252.
  • Ward CJ, Hogan MC, Rossetti S, Walker D, Sneddon T, Wang X, Kubly V, Cunningham JM, Bacallao R, Ishibashi M, Milliner DS, Torres VE, Harris PC. 2002. The gene mutated in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease encodes a large, receptor-like protein. Nat Genet 30: 259269.
  • Ward CJ, Yuan D, Masyuk TV, Wang X, Punyashthiti R, Whelan S, Bacallao R, Torra R, LaRusso NF, Torres VE, Harris PC. 2003. Cellular and subcellular localization of the ARPKD protein; fibrocystin is expressed on primary cilia. Hum Mol Genet 12: 27032710.
  • Watnick T, Germino G. 2003. From cilia to cyst. Nat Genet 34: 355356.
  • Wolf MT, Saunier S, O'Toole JF, Wanner N, Groshong T, Attanasio M, Salomon R, Stallmach T, Sayer JA, Waldherr R, Griebel M, Oh J, Neuhaus TJ, Josefiak U, Antignac C, Otto EA, Hildebrandt F. 2007. Mutational analysis of the RPGRIP1L gene in patients with Joubert syndrome and nephronophthisis. Kidney Int 72: 15201526.
  • Woollard JR, Punyashtiti R, Richardson S, Masyuk TV, Whelan S, Huang BQ, Lager DJ, vanDeursen J, Torres VE, Gattone VH, LaRusso NF, Harris PC, Ward CJ. 2007. A mouse model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease with biliary duct and proximal tubule dilatation. Kidney Int 72: 328336.
  • Yoder BK, Richards WG, Sweeney WE, Wilkinson JE, Avener ED, Woychik RP. 1995. Insertional mutagenesis and molecular analysis of a new gene associated with polycystic kidney disease. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 107: 314323.
  • Yoder BK, Hou X, Guay-Woodford LM. 2002. The polycystic kidney disease proteins, polycystin-1, polycystin-2, polaris, and cystin, are co-localized in renal cilia. J Am Soc Nephrol 13: 25082516.
  • Zaghloul NA, Katsanis N. 2009. Mechanistic insights into Bardet-Biedl syndrome, a model ciliopathy. J Clin Invest 119: 428437.
  • Zimmermann KW. 1898. Beiträge zur Kenntnis einiger Drüsen und Epithelien. Arch Mikrosk Anat 52: 552706.