Dr. Zappella is a psychiatrist who has extensively studied autism spectrum disorders. He teaches at the University of Siena in Child Neuropsychiatry.
Reversible autism and intellectual disability in children†
Article first published online: 12 APR 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics
Special Issue: Autism and Intellectual Disability: Two Sides of the Same Coin
Volume 160C, Issue 2, pages 111–117, 15 May 2012
How to Cite
Zappella, M. (2012), Reversible autism and intellectual disability in children. Am. J. Med. Genet., 160C: 111–117. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31328
How to cite this article: Zappella M. 2012. Reversible autism and intellectual disability in children. Am J Med Genet Part C Semin Med Genet 160C:111–117.
- Issue published online: 19 APR 2012
- Article first published online: 12 APR 2012
Studies on young children with reversible autism and intellectual disability are discussed. Present evidence suggests a clear cause in a minority of cases including early institutionalization, Landau and Kleffner syndrome, and other early onset epilepsies, intrauterine rubella, and blindness. The majority of cases have normal laboratory results and some have early onset Tourette syndrome. Preliminary data of a follow-up study of this last group are reported in 15 patients suggesting the possibility of two subgroups, one represented by early onset Tourette syndrome phenotype, characterized by a positive family history, and by its appearance at the same time as regression and persistence into adolescence while the other of a different nature. Genetic studies could be of help to clarify this issue and support a diagnosis of favorable outcome in young children. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.