Dental anomalies are common congenital malformations that can occur either as isolated findings or as part of a syndrome. This review focuses on genetic causes of abnormal tooth development and the implications of these abnormalities for clinical care. As an introduction, we describe general insights into the genetics of tooth development obtained from mouse and zebrafish models. This is followed by a discussion of isolated as well as syndromic tooth agenesis, including Van der Woude syndrome (VWS), ectodermal dysplasias (EDs), oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome type I, Rieger syndrome, holoprosencephaly, and tooth anomalies associated with cleft lip and palate. Next, we review delayed formation and eruption of teeth, as well as abnormalities in tooth size, shape, and form. Finally, isolated and syndromic causes of supernumerary teeth are considered, including cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.