• dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazines;
  • photophysics;
  • redox chemistry;
  • ruthenium;
  • tetrathiafulvalenes


A large π-conjugated chromophore composed of two dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine units directly fused to the central tetrathiafulvalene core has been prepared as a bridging ligand and its strong binding ability to Ru2+ to form a new dinuclear complex is presented. The electronic absorption and luminescence spectra and the electrochemical behavior of the free ligand and the Ru2+ complex have been investigated in detail. The free ligand shows a very strong band in the UV region consistent with ligand-centered π–π* transitions and an intense broad band in the visible region that corresponds to an intramolecular charge-transfer (ILCT) transition. Upon coordination, a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer band appears at 22520 cm−1, and the ILCT band is bathochromically shifted by 1620 cm−1. These electrochemically amphoteric chromophores have also been characterized by spectro-electrochemical methods. The oxidized radical species of the free ligand show a strong tendency to undergo aggregation, in which long-distance attractive interactions overcome the electrostatic repulsion. Moreover, these two new chromophores reveal an ILCT fluorescence with large solvent-dependent Stokes shifts and quantum efficiencies of 0.052 for the free ligand and 0.016 for its dinuclear Ru2+ complex in CH2Cl2.

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