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Keywords:

  • bipedal;
  • chimpanzee;
  • bonobo;
  • positional behavior;
  • posture;
  • locomotion

Abstract

Of the living apes, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus) are often presented as possible models for the evolution of hominid bipedalism. Bipedality in matched pairs of captive bonobos and chimpanzees was analyzed to test hypotheses for the evolution of bipedalism, derived from a direct referential model. There was no overall species difference in rates of bipedal positional behavior, either postural or locomotory. The hominoid species differed in the function or use of bipedality, with bonobos showing more bipedality for carrying and vigilance, and chimpanzees showing more bipedality for display. Am. J. Primatol. 54:233–239, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.