• vocal response rate;
  • primate vocalization;
  • monkey phonation (acoustic measures);
  • anterior cingulate gyrus;
  • spontaneous vocalization;
  • discriminative vocalization


Four juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that were conditioned to emit a discriminative vocal response underwent unilateral and bilateral lesions of anterior cingulate gyrus in stepwise sequence. Pre- and post-lesion measures of vocal response rate and acoustical features (call duration, amplitude, and fundamental frequency) were obtained for the conditioned task and for vocalization in the home colony (spontaneous vocalization). Unilateral lesions produced little consistent change in spontaneous “coo” vocalization rate and call duration. Conditioned vocalization of the monkeys exhibited no significant change in rate at this stage, although call duration was reduced significantly. Bilateral lesions produced no further modifications in acoustic properties of spontaneous calls, while the vocal rate decreased slightly. Conditioned calls were not significantly altered in acoustic features at this stage, although the discriminative vocalization rate was significantly decreased for all monkeys. The results indicate limited control over vocal motor systems by anterior cingulate cortex, while suggesting that this region participates in initiation of voluntary phonation.