A survey of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) was conducted in urban and forest areas of Varanasi, India. Data were collected on group size and composition. Nine groups of rhesus monkeys inhabited various urban niches, but langurs were completely absent from urban areas. Approximately 159 rhesus monkeys and 720 langurs lived in the forested area. Both the urban and the forested habitats of this area are being reduced in size, and it is suggested that these populations be moved to nearby forest preserves.