Early observations of gorillas and the history of gorillas kept in captivity are reviewed, with a focus on captive management. Improvements are noted that have resulted in some reproduction by captive gorillas. More than 180 fullterm pregnancies were recorded in captive gorillas between 1956 and 1976. Progress has been made in restricting importation of wild gorillas and in cooperative efforts to improve understanding of gorilla reproduction and to apply this knowledge to the enhancement of captive breeding. Analyses of gorilla studbooks are reported in detail and prospects for future management are outlined.