• great apes;
  • infertility;
  • testicular biopsy;
  • autoimmunity;
  • ureaplasma;
  • mycoplasma


The purpose of this discussion group was to examine a number of medical issues related to the fertility of great apes in captivity. Scientists and clinicians representing institutions and projects that impact these areas were invited to present their most recent findings and to describe the diagnostic resources available to the primary health care team. (See Table I.) The final goal of the group was to suggest a protocol for a medical examination to determine the cause of infertility. This protocol, given in Table II, is an outline for the clinician gathering data on an individual infertile ape as well as on reproductively successful individuals and groups. It should be used as a starting point; any of the headings may be fully explored by the investigator as suggested by the case.