A population of Alouatta caraya in northern Argentina had an ecological density of 130 animals per km2. Mean troop size varied from 7.2 to 8.9 individuals, and the ratio of adult males to adult females from 0.58 to 0.51. Infants comprised from 6% to 14% of the population, juveniles from 16% to 21%. These percentages probably vary seasonally in response to a birth peak at the beginning of the dry season. Males were age-graded in multi-male troops. Sexual dimorphism was extreme in this species. Males were all black and averaged 6.7 kg; females were yellow-brown and averaged 4.4 kg. Juvenile males retained the pelage color of the female until approximately 4.5 yr of age and 5 kg in weight. No genital mimicry or exaggeration occurred in this species. Vocalizations of A. caraya were similar to those of A. seniculus, both of which tend to be lower pitched than those of A. palliata.