The population of De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus) in Kenya, East Africa, was surveyed from May to September of 1983 to estimate its numbers, distribution, and conservation status. A small number of De Brazza's monkeys are protected within Saiwa National Park; however, the vast majority of the population is endangered because they are restricted to small, isolated pockets of forests amid expanding farmland within the Trans-Nzoia area of western Kenya. A few animals are found on the slopes of Mt. Elgon and on the Cherangani Hills, although these areas offer little protection. The pressures now facing this population are loss of habitat, reproductive isolation, and a decline in numbers as the result of being killed, either as a food source or as agricultural pests. If the current situation continues and no attempt is made to conserve the remaining De Brazza's monkeys, the species faces almost certain extinction in Kenya.