Dominant males of nonseasonally breeding species should have more opportunity than seasonal breeders to monopolize access to estrous females and thus enhance their reproductive success. They may also use other strategies for maximizing reproductive success such as producing offspring by relatively high ranking females. To test these hypotheses, the paternity of 35 (80%) of 44 Macaca fascicularis offspring, born over a 28-month period, was established using electrophoretically and serologically defined genetic markers. The social ranks of each of the seven potential fathers and 26 potential mothers were determined by recording outcomes of dyadio agonistic interactions. No evidence could be found to support either hypothesis. Further, in view of previously reported significant, positive correlations between male social rank and sexual activity rates in this study group, sexual activity rates do not appear to predict the number of offspring a male sires in this species.