The observation of remarkable karyotypic variation in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) stimulated us to study the chromosomal evolution of this New World genus. As an extension of this project, we examined the chromosome complement of a “phenotype-B” Aotus population from Peru. In addition to karyotype V(2n = 46), two new karyotypes with diploid numbers of 47 and 48 were identified. A G-band comparison of these karyotypes indicated that the chromosome number polymorphism in these Peruvian owl monkeys resulted from a single fusion or fission event involving a single metacentric and two acrocentric chromosome pairs. This mechanism is also known to be responsible for the chromosome number polymorphism in at least two other populations of phenotype B Aotus, one from Colombia and the other from Panama.