The two known species of uacaries, inhabitants of the upper Amazonian region, are the black head Cacajao melanocephalus with subspecies C. m. melanocephalus Humboldt and C. m. ouakary Spix, and the larger bald head uacari C. calvus with subspecies C. c. ucayalii Thomas, C. c. rubicundus I. Geoffroy and Deville, C. c. calvus I. Geoffroy, and C. c. novaesi described as new. The diagnostic generic characters described are the external, cranial, dental, some postcranial, and cytogenetic. The species are described and compared and their geographic distribution plotted with those of their subspecies delimited. Sexual differences are outlined. Apart from size-related characters, the species and subspecies are distinguished by pelage pattern of head and coloration in general. It is shown that both species could have diverged from a hairy-headed melanistic ancestral form. Pelage divergence in the descendants was expressed by the more pilose head of C. melanocephalus, and less pilose of C. calvus. Coloration differentiation was geographic and followed metachromic lines with mutation from eumelanism to partial pheomelanism (reddish or golden) in C. melanocephalus and to virtually complete pheomelanism in C. calvus. The subspecies of each species are distinguished by color patterns resulting from selective bleaching or dilution of the pheomelanin fields. The most saturate pheomelanic subspecies of C. calvus is C. c. ucayalii and the most dilute is the albinotic C. c. calvus. Correlation between coloration and environment is not evident. A gazetteer identifies all locality records plotted by numbers on the geographic distribution maps.