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Keywords:

  • pigtailed macaques;
  • long-tailed macaques;
  • neuronal connections

Abstract

The motor, sensory, and postganglionic sympathetic neurons forming the left ulnar and right radial nerves of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were localized by the horseradish peroxidase method of tracing neuronal connections. The ulnar and radial motoneurons formed a longitudinal column of variable extent in the lateral part of the ventral horn. In most animals, the ulnar motoneurons extended between the caudal ends of the C7 and T1 segments; the radial motoneurons extended between the rostral level of the C4 and the middle part of T1 segments. Although there were areas of overlap in the spinal distribution of ulnar and radial motoneurons, the ulnar motoneurons were located more dorsally and dorsolaterally than were the radial motoneurons. In most animals, labelled sensory neurons whose axons run with the ulnar nerve occurred in the C8–T4 dorsal root ganglia, and those whose axons run with the radial nerve occurred in the C5–T3 ganglia. The radial sympathetic neurons were distributed in stellate through T7 paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, and the ulnar sympathetic neurons were distributed in stellate through T4 paravertebral sympathetic ganglia. Though the motor, sensory, and sympathetic neurons forming the ulnar and radial nerves had wide segmental distributions, all showed peak frequencies in two segments. The cross-sectional areas of the motor, sensory, and postganglionic sympathetic neurons forming the radial and ulnar nerves were measured in the animal that showed the greatest amount of labelling for each nerve. The ulnar and radial motoneurons had a similar range of sizes, with cross-sectional areas between 120 and 2,160 μm2. Most were smaller than 900 μm2. The sensory neurons forming the ulnar and radial nerves also displayed a similar range of sizes, measuring between 120 and 3,360 μm2 in cross-sectional area. Most neurons measured between 201 and 800 μm2. The ulnar sympathetic neurons measured between 120 and 840 μm2, and the radial neurons between 120 and 2,120 μm2. In both cases, most neurons measured between 120 and 600 μm2. The mean cross-sectional area for the radial sympathetic neurons was, however, larger than that for the ulnar sympathetic neurons.