New material of the early anthropoid primate Qatrania wingi and a new species of that genus are described. Several features of the dental anatomy show that Qatrania, while quite primitive relative to other anthropoids in many ways, is most likely a parapithecid primate. The new material suggests that several dental features previously thought to ally parapithecids with the catarrhine primates were actually evolved in parallel in catarrhines and some parapithecids. Furthermore, all nonparapithecid anthropoids (including platyrrhines and catarrhines) share a suite of derived dental and postcranial features not found in parapithecids. Therefore, parapithecid origins may predate the platyrrhine/catarrhine split.