• Rhinopithecus bieti;
  • excrement distribution;
  • habitat use;
  • habitat alteration;
  • ranging elevation


Winter ranging patterns of Rhinopithecus bieti were determined using feces as the ranging trace. The appearance of the feces was unique in the study habitat. The sampled habitats were a well-forested area and a partly altered one. Analyses of excrement distribution showed: (1) monkeys tended to use the upper part of the forest belt, ranging between 3,900 and 4,100 m above sea level; (2) monkeys came to the ground and used the partly altered habitat, where only some forest remained; (3) the structure of resources had little influence on determining the ranging elevation; and (4) the animals spent more time in the local valley than on the local ridge, probably using the former as a sleeping site.