The hormonal response to food intake in rodents, dogs, and humans involves gastrin and cholecystokinin, structurally related peptides present in plasma, gut, and brain. In order to determine the time course of plasma gastrin response in a nonhuman primate, six overnight-fasted adult male rhesus monkeys were offered a meal of bananas (11g) and peanut butter (1 Tbsp) or a fresh water bottle in a crossover design. All animals completely consumed the meal within 10 min. Compared to non-fed control levels, plasma gastrin was significantly elevated (52 ± 11 pM vs. 32 ± 9 pM, means ± S. E. M.) from 10 to 45 min post-ingestion, but returned to near basal fasted level by 120 min. Levels of gastrin in tissue samples (n = 2) were highest in the antrum of the stomach, with decreasing amounts measured in the upper and lower duodenum, respectively. The results demonstrate that the plasma concentration and response to a meal of rhesus monkey gastrin are similar to those of other mammalian species. However, the high concentrations of gastrin found in duodenum are thus far unique to Macaca mulatta and humans.