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Keywords:

  • social structure;
  • “female bonded”;
  • intragroup proximity

Abstract

Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization was studied at the Tanjung Puting National Park in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia, for 12 months. Data were collected on one-male groups and all-male groups by using scan sampling and event sampling while following groups. Evening census surveys were also conducted. Proboscis monkeys were found to follow the typical Asian colobine pattern of one-male social groups, with extra-group males forming all-male groups. These groups appear stable, with few changes in membership. One-male groups appear to be “female bonded”; adult females direct affiliative behaviors towards their offspring and other adult females, not towards the male. Nearest-neighbor data indicate some peripheralization of juvenile animals.