The axial skeleton of Cebupithecia sarmientoi is described and analyzed for its functional and phylogenetic implications. The vertebrae of the holotype of C. sarmientoi (UCMP 38762) most closely resemble those of the extant pitheciine genus Pithecia and display features associated with adaptations for clinging and leaping as in that genus. Cebupithecia has a relatively long non-prehensile tail, which is most similar in absolute dimensions and proportions to Pithecia monachus. It also shares with P. monachus a distinctive morphology of the thoracic vertebrae, specifically the presence of a bony pillar spanning the vertebral lamina and body, caudal to the pedicle, herein designated the vinculum laminum. It is proposed that many of these features are shared primitive retentions from the last common ancestor of the Cebupithecia-pitheciine clade.