• social organization;
  • socioecology;
  • group interactions


Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) socioecology was studied at the Natai Lengkuas Station, Tanjung Puting National Park, in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Data on the nature of intergroup interactions were collected on ten one-male groups and two all-male groups using event sampling during follows and also through evening census surveys. Proboscis monkeys form stable one-male groups, with specific groups regularly associating at their sleeping sites (band members). Both intraband and interband high-intensity agonistic displays (slapping, chasing, biting) were rare. Lower intensity agonistic displays (vocalizations, leaping-branch shaking, and erect penis and open-mouth displays) occurred frequently. Temporal avoidance between bands may have been mediated by early morning vocalizations and branch shaking displays by the adult males. Associations between groups may play a role in displacement avoidance and/or predation avoidance.