Like many other callitrichids, golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia, emit Long Calls. Recordings of four free-ranging groups were made to explore different types of Long Calls. Three Long Call types were identified acoustically, and analyzed sonographically. The calls usually started with an Introductory Syllable (a chirp, a trill, or a whine) which was followed by either one, two, or three different phrases in a fixed sequential order. Each of the three phrases was unique and contained a typical number of syllables of characteristic shape, frequencies, and durations. Possible functions of these calls are discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.