A study was conducted on the most recently described marmoset species, Callithrix mauesi, and the results obtained were compared to those previously reported for the karyotypes of C. jacchus and C. emiliae. No mechanism of chromosome rearrangement differentiates the karyotypes of C. mauesi (2n = 44) and C. emiliae (2n = 44), which diverge from C. jacchus (2n = 46) by a Robertsonian translocation and a paracentric inversion. C. mauesi, like C. emiliae, presents telomeric constitutive heterochromatin in various chromosomes, forming large heterochromatic blocks in some. This does not occur in C. jacchus, which basically presents centromeric constitutive heterochromatin. The karyotype of C. mauesi differs from that of C. emiliae only by the amount and distribution of this telomeric constitutive heterochromatin. One of the chromosomes presenting a heterochromatic block in C. mauesi is chromosome X, a fact not previously reported in the Order Primates. The present chromosome data show that C. mauesi is closer to C. emiliae than to C. jacchus, in agreement with its inclusion in the C. argentata group. In the present paper, we describe for the first time, at the chromosome level, chimerism between fraternal twins of the same sex (XY/XY), with the heterochromatic block of pair 2 being the marker. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.