Counts of 61 baboon troops (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) at four localities in the Drakensberg mountains confirmed earlier reports of a small mean troop size. This troop size of 22.49 animals changed neither with latitude nor elevation. Data from two of the sites suggested that population density increases from south to north, while a working assumption of 2.5 animals/ km2 allowed us to set the population size at 7,540 animals, living in 335 troops. Both the adult sex ratio of 2.07 females/male and the immature/ adult female ratio of 1.17 were unaffected by troop size. Repeated counts from nine known troops revealed that the population is at equilibrium. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.