A field study ofSaguinus nigricollis graellsi in the Cuyabeno Faunal Production Reserve, Ecuadorian Amazonia, established the characteristics of the home range and some reproductive aspects of the species. Field data were collected in two climatic seasons: dry, from December 1989 through March 1990, and rainy, from May through August 1990. Eight groups visited and/or lived in the study area during the dry season and ten during the rainy season. Group sizes ranged from two to nine individuals. Population density was estimated at 22–33 individuals per square km. The central group, which was followed intensively, had a home range which included both flooded and non-flooded forests. Terra firme forest was most used by the species. The home range of this group was reduced from 56.2 hectares (ha) in the dry season to 41.7 ha in the rainy season, probably as a result of a differential distribution of food plants between seasons. The presence of dense undergrowth where monkeys could hide to avoid predation and or a high concentration of food plants seem related to the preferential use of certain areas in the home range. The home ranges of neighboring groups overlapped considerably and peaceful temporary large groups were frequently observed. A generalized birth peak occurred in January 1990, dry season. In June 1990, rainy season, 40% of the groups exhibited a second birth peak. This reproductive bimodality of S. nigricollis graellsi indicates a high productivity of the forests at the Cuyabeno site. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.