In an attempt to describe hormone–behavior interactions in a sample of wild male chimpanzees, we quantified testosterone in 67 fecal samples obtained from 22 adult male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. A mixed-model methodology that controlled for age-class identified a significant positive association between testosterone levels and dominance rank. The results are consistent with those reported from a separate, smaller chimpanzee community in the same population in a study that analyzed testosterone levels in urine [Muller & Wrangham, 2004]. As in that earlier study, our results held during a period of social stability, which is not consistent with predictions of the “challenge hypothesis.” We concur with Muller and Wrangham  that the challenge hypothesis requires modification to explain the chimpanzee data, because fission-fusion sociality in chimpanzees makes challenges unpredictable. We also discuss the utility of fecal samples and a mixed-model statistical method for behavioral endocrinology studies. Am. J. Primatol. 64:71–82, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.