The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa of captive marmosets (Callithrix sp.). Histologic specimens from the fundic, corpus, and antral gastric regions of six Callithrix jacchus, 12 C. kuhli, and 12 C. geoffroyi specimens were evaluated. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and the Warthin-Starry silver impregnation method, and immunostained with rabbit anti-H. pylori polyclonal antibody. Helicobacter-like organisms (HLOs) and coccoid forms were present in silver-stained sections from 29 stomachs, whereas immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests revealed bacterial aggregates in 15 stomachs. No statistical difference relative to the presence of Helicobacter sp. was found among the gastric regions or marmoset species. Gastric lesions were found in the groups of marmosets that had positive and negative IHC results, but no correlation between inflammation and Helicobacter sp. infection was established. These findings demonstrate that marmosets are susceptible to naturally-occurring Helicobacter sp. infection, and open the way to the development of comparative studies on Helicobacter sp. infection in humans. Am. J. Primatol. 66:111–118, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.