This paper reports 20 new microsatellite loci that are highly polymorphic in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We screened known human microsatellite loci to identify markers that are polymorphic in rhesus macaques, and then selected specific loci that show substantial levels of heterozygosity and robust, reliable amplification. The 20 loci reported here were chosen to include one highly informative microsatellite from each rhesus monkey autosomal chromosome. Fourteen of the 20 polymorphisms are tetranucleotide repeats, and all can be analyzed using standard PCR and electrophoresis procedures. These new rhesus markers have an average of 15.5 alleles per locus and average heterozygosity of 0.83. This panel of DNA polymorphisms will be useful for a variety of different genetic analyses, including pedigree testing, paternity analysis, and population genetic studies. Many of these loci are also likely to be informative in other closely related Old World monkey species. Am. J. Primatol. 67:377–383, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.